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BANCROFT    LIBRAKf 


II 

A  SELECTION  or  GEORGE  CROGHAN'S  LETTERS  AND 
JOURNALS  RELATING  TO  TOURS  INTO  THE  WESTERN 
COUNTRY — NOVEMBER  16,  i75o-NovEMBER,  1765.. 


SOURCES:  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  496-498,  530- 
536>  539,  540,  73J-735;  vi>  PP-  642,  643,  781,  782;  vii,  pp.  267-271. 
Massachusetts  Historical  Collections,  4  series,  ix,  pp.  362-379.  But- 
ler's History  of  Kentucky  (Cincinnati  and  Louisville,  1836),  ap- 
pendix, with  variations  from  other  sources.  New  York  Colonial 
Documents,  vii,  pp.  781-788. 


INTRODUCTORY    NOTE 

Next  to  Sir  William  Johnson,  George  Croghan  was  the 
most  prominent  figure  among  British  Indian  agents  during 
the  period  of  the  later  French  wars,  and  the  conspiracy  of 
Pontiac.  A  history  of  his  life  is  therefore  an  epitome  of 
Indian  relations  with  the  whites,  especially  on  the  borders 
of  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania  and  in  the  Ohio  Valley.  A 
pioneer  trader  and  traveller,  and  a  government  agent,  no 
other  man  of  his  time  better  knew  the  West  and  the 
counter  currents  that  went  to  make  up  its  history.  Not 
even  the  indefatigable  Gist,  or  the  self-sacrificing  Post, 
travelled  over  so  large  a  portion  of  the  Western  country, 
knew  better  the  different  routes,  or  was  more  welcome 
in  the  Indian  villages.  Among  his  own  class  he  was 
the  "  mere  idol  of  the  Irish  traders."  Sir  William  John- 
son appreciated  his  services,  made  him  his  deputy  for 
the  Ohio  Indians,  and  entrusted  him  with  the  most  deli- 
cate and  difficult  negotiations,  such  as  those  at  Fort  Pitt 
and  Detroit  in  1758-61;  and  those  in  the  Illinois  (1765)  by 
which  Pontiac  was  brought  to  terms. 

Born  in  Ireland  and  educated  at  Dublin,  Croghan 
emigrated  to  Pennsylvania  at  an  early  age  and  settled  just 
west  of  Harris's  Ferry  in  the  township  of  Pennsboro,  then 
on  the  border  of  Western  settlement.  The  opportunities 
of  the  Indian  trade  appealed  to  his  fondness  for  journey- 
ing and  sense  of  adventure.  His  daring  soon  carried  him 
beyond  the  bounds  of  the  province,  and  among  the  "  far 
Indians  "  of  Sandusky  and  the  Lake  Erie  region,  where 
he  won  adherents  for  the  English  among  the  wavering 


48  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

allies  of  the  French.  His  abilities  and  his  influence  over 
the  Indians  soon  attracted  the  attention  of  the  hard-headed 
German,  Conrad  Weiser,  who  in  1747  recommended  him 
to  the  Council  of  Pennsylvania.  In  this  manner  he  entered 
the  public  service,  and  continued  therein  throughout  the 
active  years  of  his  life. 

Croghan  was  first  employed  by  the  province  in  assist- 
ing Weiser  to  convey  a  present  to  the  Ohio,  whither  he 
preceded  him  in  the  spring  of  I748.1  The  following  year 
he  was  sent  out  to  report  on  the  French  expedition  whose 
passage  down  the  Ohio  had  alarmed  the  Allegheny 
Indians,  and  arrived  at  Logstown  just  after  Celoron  had 
passed,  thus  neutralizing  the  latter's  influence  in  that 
region.2 

The  jealousy  of  the  Indians  over  the  encroachments  of 
the  settlers  upon  their  lands  west  of  the  mountains  on  the 
Juniata,  and  in  the  central  valleys  of  Pennsylvania, 
determined  the  government  to  expel  the  settlers  rather 
than  risk  a  breach  with  the  Indians.  In  this  task,  which 
must  have  been  uncongenial  to  him,  Croghan,  as  justice 
of  the  peace  for  Cumberland  County,  was  employed  during 
the  spring  of  i75o.3  The  autumn  of  the  same  year, 
found  him  beginning  one  of  his  most  extensive  journeys 
throughout  the  Ohio  Valley,  as  far  as  the  Miamis  and 
Pickawillany,  where  he  made  an  advantageous  treaty 
with  new  envoys  of  the  Western  tribes  who  sought  his 
alliance.  To  Croghan's  annoyance,  the  Pennsylvania 
government  in  an  access  of  caution  repudiated  this  treaty 
as  having  been  unauthorized. 

1  See  Weiser's  Journal,  ante;  and  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  287, 
295- 

2  Ibid.,  v,  p.  387;  Pennsylvania  Archives,  ii,  p.  31. 

3  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  432-449. 


1750-1765]  Croghan  s  Journals  49 

In  1751  Croghan  was  again  upon  the  Allegheny,  en- 
couraging the  Indians  in  their  English  alliance,  and 
defeating  Joncaire,  the  shrewdest  of  the  French  agents  in 
this  region,  by  means  of  his  own  tactics.  The  next  year, 
he  was  pursuing  his  traffic  in  furs  among  the  Shawnees, 
but  without  forgetting  the  public  interest;4  and  the  fol- 
lowing year  finds  him  assisting  the  governor  and  Council 
at  the  important  negotiations  at  Carlisle.5  This  same 
year  (1753)  Croghan  removed  his  home  some  distance 
west,  and  settled  on  Aughwick  Creek  upon  land  granted 
him  by  the  Province.  His  public  services  were  continued 
early  in  the  next  year  by  a  journey  with  the  official 
present  to  the  Ohio,  where  he  arrived  soon  after  Wash- 
ington had  passed  upon  the  return  from  the  famous 
embassy  to  the  French  officers  at  Fort  Le  Bceuf . 

The  outbreak  of  the  French  and  Indian  War  ruined 
Croghan' s  prosperous  trading  business,  and  brought  him 
to  the  verge  of  bankruptcy.  While  at  the  same  time  a 
large  number  of  Indian  refugees,  desiring  to  remain  under 
British  protection,  sought  his  home  at  Aughwick,  where 
he  felt  obliged  to  provision  them,  with  but  meagre  assis- 
tance from  the  Province.  To  add  to  his  troubles,  the  Irish 
traders,  because  of  their  Romanist  proclivities,  fell  under 
suspicion  of  acting  as  French  spies,  and  Croghan  was 
unjustly  eyed  askance  by  many  in  authority.8  Although 
he  was  granted  a  captain's  commission  to  command  the 
Indian  contingent  during  Braddock's  campaign,  he  re- 
signed this  office  early  in  1756,  and  retired  from  the 
Pennsylvania  service. 

About  this  time  he  paid  a  visit  to  New  York,  where  his 

4  See  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  p.  568. 

6  Ibid.,  p.  665. 

e  Pennsylvania  Archives,  ii,  pp.  114,  689. 


50  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

distant  relative,  Sir  William  Johnson,  appreciating  his 
abilities,  chose  him  deputy  Indian  agent,  and  appointed 
him  to  manage  the  Susquehanna  and  Allegheny  tribes.7 
From  this  time  forward  he  was  engaged  in  important 
dealings  with  the  natives,  swaying  them  to  the  British 
interest,  making  possible  the  success  of  Forbes  (1758), 
and  the  victory  of  Prideaux  and  Johnson  (1759).  After 
the  capitulation  of  Montreal,  he  accompanied  Major 
Rogers  to  Detroit.  All  of  1761  and  1762  were  occupied 
with  Indian  conferences  and  negotiations,  in  the  course 
of  which  he  again  visited  Detroit,  meeting  Sir  William 
Johnson  en  route.8 

Late  in  1763,  Croghan  went  to  England  on  private 
business,  and  was  shipwrecked  upon  the  coast  of  France;9 
but  finally  reached  London,  where  he  presented  to  the 
lords  of  trade  an  important  memorial  on  Indian  affairs.10 

Upon  his  return  to  America  (1765),  he  was  at  once  dis- 
patched to  the  Illinois.  Proceeding  by  the  Ohio  River, 
he  was  made  prisoner  near  the  mouth  of  the  Wabash, 
and  carried  to  the  Indian  towns  upon  that  river,  where 
he  not  only  secured  his  own  release,  but  conducted 
negotiations  which  put  an  end  to  Pontiac's  War,  and 
opened  the  Illinois  to  the  British. 

A  second  journey  to  the  Illinois,  in  the  following  year, 
resulted  in  his  reaching  Fort  Chartres,  and  proceeding 
thence  to  New  Orleans.  No  journal  of  this  voyage 
has  to  our  knowledge  been  preserved. 

Croghan's  part  in  the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  (1768)  was 

7  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  vii,  p.  355;  New  York  Colonial  Documents, 
vii,  pp.  136,  174,  196,  211. 

8  Stone,  Life  0}  Johnson,  ii,  app.,  p.  457. 

8  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  p.  624. 
10  Ibid.,  p.  603. 


1750-1765]  Crogharis  Journals  51 

rewarded  by  a  grant  of  land  in  Cherry  Valley,  New 
York.  Previous  to  this  he  had  purchased  a  tract  on  the 
Allegheny  about  four  miles  above  Pittsburg,  where  in 
1770  he  entertained  Washington.  At  the  beginning  of 
the  Revolution  he  appears  to  have  embarked  in  the 
patriot  cause,11  but  later  was  an  object  of  suspicion;  and 
in  1778  was  proclaimed  by  Pennsylvania  as  a  public 
enemy,  his  place  as  Indian  agent  being  conferred  upon 
Colonel  George  Morgan.  He  continued,  however,  to 
reside  in  Pennsylvania,  and  died  at  Passyunk  in  I782.12 

In  our  selection  of  material  from  the  large  amount  of 
Croghan's  published  work,  we  have  chosen  that  which 
exemplifies  Western  conditions  under  three  aspects: 
First,  the  period  of  English  ascendency  on  the  Ohio, 
which  is  illustrated  by  three  documents  of  1750  and  1751. 
Secondly,  the  period  of  French  ascendency,  hostility 
toward  the  English,  and  war  on  the  frontiers;  for  this 
epoch  we  publish  four  documents,  ranging  from  1754  to 
1757.  The  third  period,  after  the  downfall  of  Canada, 
is  concerned  with  the  surrender  of  the  French  posts,  and 
the  renewed  hostility  of  the  Indians;  the  two  journals  we 
publish  for  this  period  present  interesting  material  for 
the  study  of  Western  history.  Each  deals  with  a 
pioneer  voyage,  for  Rogers  and  Croghan  were  the  first 
Englishmen  (except  wandering  traders  or  prisoners)  to 
penetrate  the  Lake  Erie  region  and  reach  Detroit.  The 
voyage  down  the  Ohio  (1765),  with  its  circumstantial 
account  of  the  appearance  of  the  country,  and  its  descrip- 
tion of  Indian  conditions  and  relations,  is  noteworthy. 

Croghan  was  a  voluminous  writer.  In  addition  to 
the  official  reports  of  his  journeys,  he  evidently  had 

11  Egle,  Notes  and  Queries  (Harrisburg,  1896)  3d  series,  ii,  p.  348. 

12  For  his  descendants  see  Egle,  Notes  and  Qtieries,  3d  series,  ii,  p.  349. 


52  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

the  habit  of  noting  down  the  events  of  the  day  in  a  simple, 
straightforward  manner,  so  that  many  manuscripts  of 
his  were  long  extant,  presenting  often  different  versions 
of  the  same  journey.  The  earlier  antiquaries  published 
these  as  chance  brought  them  to  their  notice.13  The 
official  reports  themselves  were  preserved  in  the  colonial 
archives,  and  are  published  in  the  Pennsylvania  and  New 
York  collections.  It  is  believed  that  this  is  the  first  attempt 
to  bring  together  a  selection  of  Croghan  material  that  in 
any  adequate  manner  outlines  his  interesting  career. 
The  chronological  extent  of  these  journals  (from  1750- 
1765)  makes  those  which  follow  —  Post's  of  1758;  and 
Morris's  of  1764  —  interludes  in  the  events  which  Cro- 
ghan describes,  thus  throwing  additional  light  upon  the 
same  period  and  the  same  range  of  territory. 
R.  G.  T. 

13  See  Craig,  The  Olden  Time,  and  the  heterogeneous  mass  of  Croghan' s 
writings  therein  printed. 


A  SELECTION  OF  GEORGE  CROGHAN'S 
LETTERS  AND  JOURNALS  RELATING 
TO  TOURS  INTO  THE  WESTERN  COUN- 
TRY—NOVEMBER 16,  1750- NOVEMBER, 

1765 

CROGHAN  TO  THE  GOVERNOR  OF  PENNSYLVANIA" 

LOGSTOWN  ON  OHIO, 
December  [November]  the  i6th,  i75o.15 
SIR:    Yesterday  Mr.  Montour  and  I  got  to  this  Town, 
where  we  found  thirty  Warriors  of  the  Six  Nations  going 

14  The  following  is  reprinted   from  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp. 
496-498;  also  printed  in  Early  History  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  app.,  pp.  21- 
29.     The  circumstances  under  which  it  was  written  are  as  follows:  In  the 
autumn  of  1750,  Conrad  Weiser  reported  to  the  governor  of  Pennsylvania  that 
the  French  agent  Joncaire  was  on  his  way  to  the  Ohio  with  a  present  of  goods, 
and  orders  from  the  governor  of  Canada  to  drive  out  all  the  English  traders. 
Accordingly,  Governor  Hamilton  detailed  Croghan  and  Montour  to  hasten 
thither,  and  by  the  use  of  a  small  present,  and  the  promise  fof  more,  to  try  and 
counteract  the  intrigues  of  the  French,  and  maintain  the  Indians  in  the  English 
interest.   Upon  Croghan's  arrival  at  Logstown,  he  sent  back  this  reassuring  letter. 
Proceeding  westward  to  the  Muskingum,  where  he  had  a  trading  house  at  a 
Wyandot  village,  Croghan  met  Christopher  Gist,  agent  for  the  Ohio  Company, 
and  with  him  continued  to  the  Scioto,  thence  to  the  Twigtwee  town  of  Picka- 
willany  (near  the  present  Piqua,  Ohio).     All  the  way,  Croghan  held  confer- 
ences with  the  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Wyandots,  and  Twigtwees,  strengthening 
the  English  alliance,  and  promising  a  large  present  of  goods  to  be  furnished 
next  spring  at  Logstown.     At  Pickawillany,  he  made  an  unauthorized  treaty 
with  two  new  tribes  who  sought  the  English  alliance  —  the  Piankeshaws  and 
Weas  (Waughwaoughtanneys,  French  Ouiatonons).     Unfortunately  no  extant 
document  by  Croghan  adequately  chronicles  this  journey.     Our  knowledge  of 
it  is  derived  from  the  journal  of  Gist  (q.  v.) ;  from  incidental  notices  in  the 
Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  476, 485-488,  522-525;  and  from  Croghan's 
brief  account,  see  post. —  ED. 

15  In  the  original  publication  the  month  was  misprinted  December  for 
November.     See  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  p.  498,  where  the  governor 
in  a  message  to  the  Assembly  speaks  of  Croghan's  letter  from  the  Ohio  of  the 
sixteenth  of  November.     Cf.  also,  Gist's  Journal,  November  25,  1750,  where 
he  says  that  Croghan  had  passed  through  Logstown  about  a  week  before. —  ED. 


54  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

to  War  against  the  Catawba  Indians;  they  told  us  that 
they  saw  John  Coeur  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles 
up  this  River  at  an  Indian  Town,  where  he  intends  to 
build  a  Fort  if  he  can  get  Liberty  from  the  Ohio  Indians; 
he  has  five  canoes  loaded  with  Goods,  and  is  very  gener- 
ous in  making  Presents  to  all  the  Chiefs  of  the  Indians 
that  he  meets  with;  he  has  sent  two  Messages  to  this 
Town  desiring  the  Indians  here  to  go  and  meet  him  and 
clear  the  Road  for  him  to  come  down  the  River,  but  they 
have  had  so  little  Regard  to  his  Message  that  they  have 
not  thought  it  worth  while  to  send  him  an  answer  as  yet.16 
We  have  seen  but  very  few  of  the  Chiefs  of  the  Indians 
they  being  all  out  a  hunting,  but  those  we  have  seen  are  of 
opinion  that  their  Brothers  the  English  ought  to  have 
a  Fort  on  this  River  to  secure  the  Trade,  for  they  think 
it  will  be  dangerous  for  the  Traders  to  travel  the  Roads 
for  fear  of  being  surprised  by  some  of  the  French  and 
French  Indians,  as  they  expect  nothing  else  but  a  War 
with  the  French  next  Spring.  At  a  Town  about  three 
hundred  miles  down  this  River,  where  the  Chief  of  the 
Shawonese  live,17  a  Party  of  French  and  French  Indians 

16  Philippe  Thomas  Joncaire  (John  Coeur),  Sieur  de  Chabert,  was  a  French 
officer  resident  among  the  Seneca  Indians,  to  whose  tribe  his  mother  was  said 
to  belong.     Born  in  1707,  on  the  death  of  his  father  (1740)  he  succeeded  to 
the  latter's  influence  and  authority  among  the  Iroquois,  and  made  constant 
efforts  to  neutralize  the  influence  of  Sir  William  Johnson,  the  English  agent. 
Joncaire  had  a  trading  house  at  Niagara,  and  his  profits  from  the  portage  of 
goods  at  that  place  were  great.     He  accompanied  Celeron's  expedition  in 
1749;  and  in  1753  met  Washington  at  Venango.     It  was  chiefly  due  to  his  in- 
fluence that  the  Ohio  Indians  deserted  the  English  at  the  outbreak  of  the  French 
and  Indian  war.     Joncaire  led  the  Iroquois  contingent  in  all  the  campaigns  on 
the  Allegheny  and  in  Western  New  York;  and  when  Prideaux  and  Johnson 
advanced  against  Niagara,  he  commanded  an  outpost  at  the  upper  end  of  the 
portage.     He  signed  the  capitulation  of  Fort  Niagara  (1759),  but  after  that 
nothing  further  is  known  of  him. —  ED. 

17  The  town  mentioned  here  was  at  the  mouth  of  the   Scioto  River,  and 
was  known  as  "  the  lower  Shawnee  town." —  ED. 


1750]  Croghan's  Journals  55 

surprised  some  of  the  Shawonese  and  killed  a  man  and 
took  a  woman  and  two  children  Prisoners;  the  Shawonese 
pursued  them  and  took  five  French  Men  and  some 
Indians  Prisoners;  the  Twightwees  likewise  have  sent 
word  to  the  French  that  if  they  can  find  any  of  their  Peo- 
ple, either  French  or  French  Indians,  on  their  hunting 
Ground,  that  they  will  make  them  Prisoners,  so  I  expect 
nothing  else  but  a  War  this  Spring;  the  Twightwees  want 
to  settle  themselves  some  where  up  this  River  in  order 
to  be  nearer  their  Brothers  the  English,  for  they  are 
determined  never  to  hold  a  Treaty  of  Peace  with  the 
French.  Mr.  Montour  and  I  intend  as  soon  as  we  can 
get  the  Chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations  that  are  Settled  here 
together,  to  sollicit  them  to  appoint  a  Piece  of  Ground 
up  this  River  to  seat  the  Twightwees  on  and  kindle  a 
Fire  for  them,  and  if  possible  to  remove  the  Shawonese 
up  the  River,  which  we  think  will  be  securing  those 
Nations  more  steady  to  the  English  Interest.  I  hope  the 
Present  of  Goods  that  is  preparing  for  those  Indians 
will  be  at  this  Town  some  time  in  March  next,  for  the 
Indians,  as  they  are  now  acquainted  that  there  is  a  Present 
coming,  will  be  impatient  to  receive  it,  as  they  intend  to 
meet  the  French  next  Spring  between  this  and  Fort  De 
Troit,  for  they  are  certain  the  French  intend  an  Expedi- 
tion against  them  next  Spring  from  Fort  De  Troit.18 

18  Detroit  was  considered  an  important  station  by  La  Salle;  but  no  perma- 
nent post  was  established  there  until  1701,  when  De  la  Mothe  Cadillac  built  a 
fort  named  Pontchartrain,  and  established  the  nucleus  of  a  French  colony. 
Bands  of  Indians  were  induced  to  settle  at  the  strait;  and  here  (1712)  took 
place  the  battle  of  the  Foxes  with  the  Hurons  and  Ottawas.  Detroit  con- 
tinued to  be  one  of  the  most  important  French  posts  in  the  West  until  in  1760, 
when  it  was  transferred  to  an  English  detachment  under  command  of  Major 
Rogers.  See  Croghan's  Journal,  post. 

The  siege  of  Detroit  during  Pontiac's  War  is  one  of  the  best  known  inci- 


56  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

I  hear  the  Owendaets  [Wyandots]  are  as  steady  and  well 
attached  to  the  English  Interest  as  ever  they  were,  so 
that  I  believe  the  French  will  make  but  a  poor  hand  of 
those  Indians.  Mr.  Montour  takes  a  great  deal  of  Pains 
to  promote  the  English  Interest  amongst  those  Indians, 
and  has  a  great  sway  amongst  all  those  Nations;  if  your 
Honour  has  any  Instructions  to  send  to  Mr.  Montour, 
Mr.  Trent  will  forward  it  to  me.19  I  will  see  it  delivered 
to  the  Indians  in  the  best  manner,  that  your  Honour's 
Commands  may  have  their  full  Force  with  the  Indians. 
I  am,  with  due  respects, 

Your  Honour's  most  humble  Servant, 

GEO.  CROGHAN. 
The  Honoble.  JAMES  HAMILTON,20  Esq. 

dents  in  its  history.  During  the  Revolution,  the  British  officials  here  were 
accused  of  sending  scalping  parties  against  the  frontier  settlements;  and  in 
1779  George  Rogers  Clark  captured  at  Vincennes  its  "hair-buying"  corns 
mandant,  General  Henry  Hamilton.  In  1780,  an  expedition  against  Detroit  wa- 
projected  by  Clark,  but  failed  of  organization.  Throughout  the  Indian  wars 
of  the  Northwest,  Detroit  was  regarded  with  suspicion  by  the  Americans,  and 
its  surrender  in  1796  secured  a  respite  for  the  frontier.  Its  capitulation  to  the 
British  by  Hull  (1812)  was  a  blow  to  the  American  cause,  which  was  not  re- 
paired until  after  Perry's  victory  on  Lake  Erie,  when  Proctor  evacuated  Detroit, 
which  was  regained  by  an  American  force  (September  29,  1813).  Cass  was 
then  made  governor.  As  American  settlement  came  in,  the  importance  of 
Detroit  as  a  centre  for  the  fur-trade  declined,  and  its  career  as  a  Western  com- 
mercial city  began. —  ED. 

19  Captain  William  Trent  was  a  noted  Indian  trader,  brother-in-law  and  at 
this  time  partner  of  Croghan.  Although  born  in  Lancaster,  Pennsylvania  (1715), 
he  served  the  colony  of  Virginia  as  Indian  agent;  and  in  1752  its  governor  dis- 
patched him  to  the  Miamis  with  a  present.  See  Journal  of  Captain  Trent 
(Cincinnati,  1871).  The  following  year  he  was  sent  out  by  the  Ohio  Company 
to  begin  a  fortification  at  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio,  from  which  in  Trent's  absence 
(April,  1754),  the  garrison  was  expelled  by  a  French  force  under  Contrecceur. 
Trent  was  with  Forbes  in  1758,  and  the  following  year  was  made  deputy  Indian 
agent,  assistant  to  Croghan,  and  aided  at  the  conferences  at  Fort  Pitt  in  1760. 
His  trade  was  ruined  by  the  uprising  of  Pontiac's  forces,  but  he  received  repara- 
tion at  the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  (1768)  by  a  large  grant  of  land  between  the 
Kanawha  and  Monongahela  rivers,  where  he  made  a  settlement.  At  the  out- 


1750]  Croghan's  "Journals  57 

break  of  the  Revolution  he  joined  the  patriot  cause,  and  was  major  of  troops 
raised  in  Western  Pennsylvania. —  ED. 

20  Governor  James  Hamilton  was  the  son  of  a  prominent  Philadelphia 
lawyer,  and  being  himself  educated  for  the  legal  profession,  held  several  offices 
in  the  colony  before  he  was  appointed  lieutenant-governor  in  1748.  His  ad- 
ministration was  a  vigorous  one,  but  owing  to  difficulties  with  the  Quaker 
party  he  resigned  in  1754.  Five  years  later  he  was  reinstated  in  the  office,  and 
served  until  the  proprietor  John  Penn  came  over  as  governor  (1763).  His 
death  occurred  at  New  York  during  the  British  occupation  (1783). —  ED. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  GEORGE  CROGHAN,  ESQUIRE,  AND  MR. 
ANDREW  MONTOUR  AT  OHIO,  IN  THE  EXECUTION  OF 
THE  GOVERNOR'S  INSTRUCTIONS  TO  DELIVER  THE 
PROVINCIAL  PRESENT  TO  THE  SEVERAL  TRIBES  OF 
INDIANS  SETTLED  THERE:21 

May  the  i8th,  1751. — I  arrived  at  the  Log's  Town  on 
Ohio  with  the  Provincial  Present  from  the  Province  of 
Pennsylvania,  where  I  was  received  by  a  great  number 
of  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  and  Shawonese,  in  a  very 
complaisant  manner  in  their  way,  by  firing  Guns  and 
Hoisting  the  English  Colours.  As  soon  as  I  came  to  the 
shore  their  Chiefs  met  me  and  took  me  by  the  Hand 
bidding  me  welcome  to  their  Country. 

May  the  igth. —  One  of  the  Six  Nation  Kings  from  the 
Head  of  Ohio  came  to  the  Logstown  to  the  Council,  he 
immediately  came  to  visit  me,  and  told  me  he  was  glad  to 
see  a  Messenger  from  his  Brother  Onas  on  the  waters  of 
the  Ohio. 

May  the  2oth. — Forty  Warriors  of  the  Six  Nations 

aThis  document  is  reprinted  from  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp. 
530-536;  a  portion  of  it  is  also  to  be  found  in  Craig,  The  Olden  Time  (Pittsburg, 
1846),  i,  p.  136,  and  a  reprint  in  Early  History  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  app., 
pp.  26-34.  As  the  result  of  Croghan's  Western  journey  during  the  winter  of 
1750-51,  and  the  desire  of  Pennsylvania  to  maintain  its  trade  relations  with 
the  Ohio  Indians,  the  Assembly  voted  £700  to  be  employed  in  presents; 
and  the  governor  instructed  Croghan  and  Montour  to  deliver  the  goods. — 
See  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  487,  518,  525,  and  Croghan's 
account,  post.  The  adroitness  with  which  Croghan  outwitted  the  French 
officer  and  interpreter  Joncaire,  and  his  influence  over  the  chiefs  on  the 
Ohio,  as  well  as  the  susceptibility  of  the  Indian  nature  to  the  influence 
of  material  goods,  are  all  exemplified  in  this  narrative.  It  did  not  result, 
however,  as  Croghan  and  the  governor  wished,  in  inducing  the  Pennsyl- 
vania authorities  to  construct  a  fort  on  the  Ohio.  The  beginnings  of  that 
enterprise  were  left  to  the  Virginians,  but  too  late  to  secure  the  Forks  of  the 
Ohio  from  being  seized  by  the  French. —  ED. 


1751]  Crogharis  Journals  59 

came  to  Town  from  the  Heads  of  Ohio,  with  Mr.  loncoeur 
and  one  Frenchman  more  in  company. 

May  the  2ist,  1751. — Mr.  loncoeur,  the  French  Inter- 
preter, called  a  council  with  all  the  Indians  then  present 
in  the  Town,  and  made  the  following  Speech: 

' '  CHILDREN  :  I  desire  you  may  now  give  me  an  answer 
from  your  hearts  to  the  Speech  Monsieur  Celeron  (the 
Commander  of  the  Party  of  Two  Hundred  Frenchmen 
that  went  down  the  River  two  Years  ago)  made  to  you.22 
His  Speech  was,  That  their  Father  the  Governor  of 
Canada  desired  his  Children  on  Ohio  to  turn  away  the 
English  Traders  from  amongst  them,  and  discharge 
them  from  ever  coming  to  trade  there  again,  or  on  any 
of  the  Branches,  on  Pain  of  incurring  his  Displeasure,  and 
to  enforce  that  Speech  he  gave  them  a  very  large  Belt  of 
Wampum.  Immediately  one  of  the  Chiefs  of  the  Six 
Nations  get  up  and  made  the  following  answer: 

"FATHERS:  I  mean  you  that  call  yourselves  our 
Fathers,  hear  what  I  am  going  to  say  to  you.  You  de- 
sire we  may  turn  our  Brothers  the  English  away,  and  not 
suffer  them  to  come  and  trade  with  us  again;  I  now  tell 
you  from  our  Hearts  we  will  not,  for  we  ourselves  brought 
them  here  to  trade  with  us,  and  they  shall  live  amongst 

22  The  commandant  of  this  famous  expedition  (1749)  was  Pierre  Joseph 
Celeron,  Sieur  de  Blainville,  born  in  1693,  and  having  served  a  long  apprentice- 
ship in  the  posts  of  the  upper  country.  He  commanded  an  invasion  of  the 
Chickasaw  country  (1739),  and  had  charge  of  the  post  at  Detroit  in  1742-43, 
and  again  in  1750-54.  Fort  Niagara  was  entrusted  to  him  in  1744-47,  whence 
he  was  transferred  to  Crown  Point,  until  his  Ohio  expedition  took  place.  In 
the  French  and  Indian  War  he  held  the  rank  of  major,  and  served  on  the  staff 
of  the  commander-in-chief.  He  died  about  1777.  In  1760,  the  Canadian 
authorities  characterized  him  as  "poor  and  brave."  Some  question  has 
arisen,  whether  the  leader  of  this  expedition  might  not  have  been  a  younger 
brother,  Jean  Baptiste.  For  Croghan's  visit  to  the  Ohio  directly  after  Celeron's 
expedition  had  passed,  see  post;  also,  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v, 
p.  387,  and  Pennsylvania  Archives,  ii,  p.  31. —  ED. 


60  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

us  as  long  as  there  is  one  of  us  alive.  You  are  always 
threatning  our  Brothers  what  you  will  do  to  them,  and 
in  particular  to  that  man  (pointing  to  me);  now  if  you 
have  anything  to  say  to  our  Brothers  tell  it  to  him  if  you 
be  a  man,  as  you  Frenchmen  always  say  you  are,  and  the 
Head  of  all  Nations.  Our  Brothers  are  the  People  we 
will  trade  with,  and  not  you.  Go  and  tell  your  Governor 
to  ask  the  Onondago  Council  If  I  don't  speak  the  minds 
of  all  the  Six  Nations;"23  and  then  [he]  returned  the  Belt. 

I  paid  Cochawitchake  the  old  Shawonese  King  a  visit, 
3,5  he  was  rendered  incapable  of  attending  the  Council 
by  his  great  age,  and  let  him  know  that  his  Brother  the 
Governor  of  Pennsylvania  was  glad  to  hear  that  he  was 
still  alive  and  retained  his  senses,  and  had  ordered  me  to 
cloathe  him  and  to  acquaint  him  that  he  had  not  forgot 
his  strict  Attachment  to  the  English  Interest.  I  gave 
him  a  Strowd  Shirt,  Match  Coat,  and  a  pair  of  Stockings, 
for  which  he  gave  the  Governor  a  great  many  thanks. 

May  the  22d. —  A  number  of  about  forty  of  the  Six 
Nations  came  up  the  River  Ohio  to  Logstown  to  wait  on 
the  Council;  as  soon  as  they  came  to  Town  they  came  to 
my  House,  and  after  shaking  Hands  they  told  me  they 
were  glad  to  see  me  safe  arrived  in  their  Country  after  my 
long  Journey. 

May  the  23d. —  Conajarca,  one  of  the  Chiefs  of  the 
Six  Nations,  and  a  Party  with  him  from  the  Cuscuskie, 
came  to  Town  to  wait  on  the  Council,  and  congratulated 
me  upon  my  safe  arrival  in  their  Country. 

23  The  Onondaga  Council  was  the  chief  governing  body  of  the  Six  Nations, 
or  Iroquois,  and  since  this  confederacy  assumed  supremacy  over  the  Ohio 
Indians,  it  was  the  chief  centre  of  Indian  diplomacy.  The  council  house  was 
situated  on  the  site  of  the  present  town  of  Onondaga,  New  York,  and  was 
about  eighty  feet  long,  with  broad  seats  arranged  on  each  side.  For  an  early 
description  see  Bartram,  Observations,  etc.  (London,  1751),  pp.  40,  41. —  ED. 


1751]  Crogharis  Journals  61 

May  the  24th. —  Some  Warriors  of  the  Delawares  came 
to  Town  from  the  Lower  Shawonese  Town,  and  brought 
a  Scalp  with  them;  they  brought  an  Account  that  the 
Southward  Indians  had  come  to  the  Lower  Towns  to 
War,  and  had  killed  some  of  the  Shawonese,  Delawares, 
and  the  Six  Nations,  so  that  we  might  not  expect  any 
People  from  there  to  the  Council. 

May  the  25th. —  I  had  a  conference  with  Monsieur 
loncoeur;  he  desired  I  would  excuse  him  and  not  think 
hard  of  him  for  the  Speech  he  made  to  the  Indians  re- 
questing them  to  turn  the  English  Traders  away  and  not 
suffer  them  to  trade,  for  it  was  the  Governor  of  Canada's 
Orders24  to  him,  and  he  was  obliged  to  obey  them  altho' 
he  was  very  sensible  which  way  the  Indians  would  re- 
ceive them,  for  he  was  sure  the  French  could  not  accom- 
plish their  designs  with  the  Six  Nations  without  it  could 
be  done  by  Force,  which  he  said  he  believed  they  would 
find  to  be  as  difficult  as  the  method  they  had  just  tryed, 
and  would  meet  with  the  like  success. 

May  the  26th. —  A  Dunkar  from  the  Colony  of  Virginia 
came  to  the  Log's  Town  and  requested  Liberty  of  the 
Six  Nation  Chiefs  to  make  [a  settlement]  on  the  River 
Yogh-yo-gaine  a  branch  of  Ohio,  to  which  the  Indians 
made  answer  that  it  was  not  in  their  Power  to  dispose  of 
Lands;  that  he  must  apply  to  the  Council  at  Onondago, 

24  Galissoniere,  the  governor  of  Canada,  who  planned  Celeron's  expedition 
to  the  Ohio,  was  superseded  in  the  autumn  of  1749  by  Jacques  Pierre  de  Taffanel, 
Marquis  de  la  Jonquiere,  who  continued  the  policy  of  the  former;  he  sent  orders 
to  the  commandants  of  the  Western  posts  to  arrest  all  British  subjects  found  in 
the  Ohio  Valley.  La  Jonquiere,  who  was  born  in  1686,  had  served  in  the 
French  navy  with  distinction,  and  after  his  first  commission  as  governor  of 
New  France  was  captured  by  an  English  vessel  (1747),  and  kept  a  prisoner  for 
more  than  a  year,  so  that  he  did  not  reach  his  post  until  1749.  His  term  of 
service  was  but  two  years  and  a  half,  being  terminated  by  his  death  in  May, 
1752. —  ED. 


62  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

and  further  told  him  that  he  did  not  take  a  right  method, 
for  he  should  be  first  recommended  by  their  Brother  the 
Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  with  whom  all  Publick  Business 
of  that  sort  must  be  transacted  before  he  need  expect  to 
succeed.25 

May  the  27th. —  Mr  Montour  and  I  had  a  Conference 
with  the  Chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations,  when  it  was  agreed 
upon  that  the  following  Speeches  should  be  made  to  the 
Delawares,  Shawonese,  Owendatts  and  Twightwees, 
when  the  Provincial  Present  should  be  delivered  them  in 
the  Name  of  the  Honourable  James  Hamilton,  Esquire, 
Lieutenant  Governor  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 
Province  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Counties  of  New  Castle, 
Kent,  and  Sussex,  on  Delaware,  in  Conjunction  with  the 
Chiefs  of  the  Six  United  Nations  On  Ohio: 

A  TREATY  WITH  THE  INDIANS  OF  THE  Six  NATIONS,  DEL- 
AWARES, SHAWONESE,  OWENDATTS  AND  TWIGHTWEES. 

IN  THE  LOG'S  TOWN  ON  OHIO, 
Thursday  the  28th  May,  1751. 

PRESENT: 

Thomas  Kinton,      Joseph  Nelson, 
Samuel  Cuzzens,     James  Brown, 


Jacob  Pyatt,  Dennis  Sullavan, 


>  Indian  Traders. 


John  Owens,  Paul  Pearce, 

Thomas  Ward,        Caleb  Lamb, 

The  Deputies  of  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  Shawo- 

25  This  Dunkar  (or  Dunker)  was  doubtless  Samuel  Eckerlin  one  of  three 
brothers  who  migrated  from  Ephrata  about  1745,  and  ultimately  settled  on  the 
Monongahela  about  ten  miles  below  Morgantown,  West  Virginia.  The  Dunkers 
were  a  sect  of  German  Baptists  that  arose  in  the  Palatine  about  1708,  and  mi- 
grated to  Pennsylvania  in  1719.  Their  formal  organization  took  place  at  a 
baptism  on  the  banks  of  Wissahickon  Creek  (near  Philadelphia)  in  1723. 
There  were  several  divisions  of  this  sect,  one  of  which  founded  the  community 


1751]  Crogharis  Journals  63 

nese,  Owendatts,  and  Twightwees;  Mr.  Andrew  Mon- 
tour,  Interpreter  for  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania; 
Toanshiscoe,  Interpreter  for  the  Six  Nations. 

George  Croghan  made  the  following  Speech  to  the 
several  Nations,  when  they  were  met  in  Council,  in  the 
Name  of  the  Honourable  James  Hamilton,  Esquire, 
Governor  of  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania: 

11  FRIENDS  AND  BRETHREN: — I  am  sent  here  by  your 
Brother  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania  with  this  Present 
of  Goods  to  renew  the  Friendship  so  long  subsisting 
between  Us,  and  I  present  you  these  four  strings  of  Wam- 
pum to  clear  your  Minds  and  open  your  Eyes  and  Ears 
that  you  may  see  the  Sun  clear,  and  hear  what  your 
Brother  is  going  to  say  to  you." — Gave  4  Strings  of 
Wampum. 

A  Speech  delivered  the  Delawares  —  in  answer  to  the 
Speech  they  sent  by  Mr.  Weiser  three  Years  ago  to  his 
Honour  the  Governor  to  acquaint  him  of  the  Death  of 
their  Chief,  King  Oulamopess26— by  George  Croghan: 

"BRETHREN  THE  DELAWARES: — Three  years  ago 
some  of  the  Chiefs  of  your  Nation  sent  me  a  Message  by 
Mr.  Weiser  to  acquaint  me  of  the  Death  of  your  King,  a 
man  well  beloved  by  his  Brethren  the  English.  You  told 
Mr.  Weiser  that  you  intended  to  visit  me  in  order  to 
consult  about  a  new  Chief,  but  you  never  did  it.  I  have 
ever  since  condoled  with  you  for  the  Loss  of  so  good  a 
Man,  and  considering  the  lamentable  Condition  you  were 

of  Ephrata.  Their  tenets  were  baptism  by  immersion,  a  celibate  community 
life,  and  refusal  to  bear  arms.  The  Eckerlin  brothers  sought  a  solitary  wilder- 
ness life,  and  at  first  were  regarded  with  favor  by  the  Ohio  Indians.  A  massa- 
cre, however,  demolished  their  settlement  in  1757.  Three  of  the  party  were 
captured,  and  sent  as  prisoners  to  Canada,  and  later  to  France.  For  details 
see  Sachse,  German  Sectarians  of  Pennsylvania  (Philadelphia,  1900),  ii,  pp. 
340-359.—  ED. 

28  For  an  account  of  this  chief  see  Weiser's  Journal,  ante. —  ED. 


64  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

in  for  want  of  a  Chief  I  present  You  this  Belt  of  Wampum 
and  this  Present  to  wipe  away  your  Tears,  and  I  desire 
you  may  choose  amongst  Yourselves  one  of  your  wisest 
Counsellors  and  present  to  your  Brethren  the  Six  Nations 
and  me  for  a  Chief,  and  he  so  chosen  by  you  shall  be 
looked  upon  by  us  as  your  King,  with  whom  Publick 
Business  shall  be  transacted.  Brethren,  to  enforce  this 
on  your  Minds  I  present  you  this  Belt  of  Wampum." — 
Gave  a  Belt  of  Wampum,  which  was  received  with  the 
Yohah.27 

A  Speech  delivered  the  Shawonese  from  the  Honour- 
able James  Hamilton,  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  by 
George  Croghan: 

"BRETHREN  THE  SHAWONESE: — Three  years  ago 
when  some  of  your  Chiefs  and  some  Chiefs  of  the  Six 
Nations  came  down  to  Lancaster  with  our  Brethren  the 
Twightwees,  they  informed  me  that  your  People  that 
went  away  with  Peter  Chartier  was  coming  back,  and 
since  that  I  hear  that  Part  of  them  are  returned.  I  am 
glad  to  hear  that  they  are  coming  home  to  you  again  that 
you  may  become  once  more  a  People,  and  not  as  you  were 
dispersed  thro'  the  World.  I  do  not  blame  you  for  what 
happened,  for  the  wisest  of  People  sometimes  make  mis- 
takes; it  was  the  French  that  the  Indians  call  their  Fathers 
that  deceived  You  and  scattered  you  about  the  Woods 
that  they  might  have  it  in  their  Power  to  keep  you  poor. 
Brethren,  I  assure  you  by  this  Present  that  I  am  fully 
reconcil'd  and  have  forgot  any  thing  that  you  have  done, 
and  I  hope  for  the  future  there  will  be  a  more  free  and 
open  Correspondence  between  us;  and  now  your  Brethren 

27  Indians  receive  a  speech  with  grunts  of  approval,  which  the  French 
annalists  spelled  "ho-ho."  Croghan  is  apparently  giving  the  English  render- 
ing of  this  term. —  ED. 


1751]  Crogharts  Journals  65 

the  Six  Nations  join  with  me  to  remove  any  misunder- 
standing that  should  have  happened  between  us,  that 
we  may  henceforth  spend  the  remainder  of  our  days 
together  in  Brotherly  Love  and  Friendship.  Now,  that 
this  Speech  which  your  Brothers  the  Six  Nations  joyn 
with  me  in  may  have  its  full  Force  on  your  minds,  I 
present  you  this  Belt  of  Wampum."  -Gave  a  Belt  of 
Wampum,  Which  was  received  with  the  Yo-hah. 

A  Speech  delivered  the  Owendatts,  from  the  Honour- 
able James  Hamilton,  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  by 
George  Croghan: 

"BRETHREN  THE  OWENDATTS: — I  received  a  Message 
by  the  Six  Nations  and  another  by  Mr.  Montour  from 
you,  by  both  which  I  understand  the  French,  whom  the 
Indians  call  their  Father,  wont  let  you  rest  in  your  Towns 
in  Peace,  but  constantly  threaten  to  cut  you  off.  How 
comes  this  ?  Are  you  not  a  free  and  independent  People, 
and  have  you  not  a  Right  to  live  where  you  please  on  your 
own  Land  and  trade  with  whom  you  please?  Your 
Brethren,  the  English,  always  considered  you  as  a  free 
Nation,  and  I  think  the  French  who  attempt  to  infringe 
on  your  Liberties  should  be  opposed  by  one  and  all  the 
Indians  or  any  other  Nations  that  should  undertake  such 
unjust  proceedings. 

' '  Brethren :  I  am  sorry  to  hear  of  your  Troubles,  and 
I  hope  you  and  your  Brethren  the  Six  Nations  will  let 
the  French  know  that  you  are  a  free  People  and  will  not 
be  imposed  on  by  them.  To  assure  you  that  I  have 
your  Troubles  much  at  heart  I  present  you  this  Belt 
and  this  Present  of  Goods  to  cloathe  your  Families." — 
Gave  a  Belt  of  Wampum,  which  was  received  with  the 
Yo-hah. 

A  Speech  delivered  the  Twightwees  from  the  Honour- 


66  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

able  James  Hamilton,  Esquire,  Governor  Pennsylvania, 
by  George  Croghan : 

"BRETHREN  THE  TWIGHTWEES: — As  you  are  an 
antient  and  renowned  Nation  I  was  well  pleased  when 
you  sent  your  Deputies  now  three  years  ago  to  sollicit 
our  Alliance;  nor  did  we  hesitate  to  grant  you  your 
Request,  as  it  came  so  warmly  recommended  to  us  by 
our  Brethren  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  and  Shawonese. 
At  your  further  Request  we  ordered  our  Traders  to  go 
amongst  you  and  supply  you  with  Goods  at  as  reasonable 
rates  as  they  could  afford.  We  understand  that  in  obedi- 
ence to  our  Commands  our  Traders  have  given  you  full 
Satisfaction  to  your  Requests.  In  one  your  Towns  about 
three  Months  ago  Mr.  George  Croghan  likewise  informs 
us  that  some  more  of  your  Tribes  earnestly  requested 
to  become  our  Allies.  He  and  Mr.  Montour  did  receive 
a  writing  from  you  Certifying  such  your  Request,  and 
containing  your  Promises  of  Fidelity  and  Friendship, 
which  we  have  seen  and  approve  of.  Brethren:  we  have 
recommended  it  to  our  Brethren  the  Six  Nations  to  give 
you  their  advice  how  you  should  behave  in  your  new 
Alliance  with  us,  and  we  expect  that  you  will  follow  it, 
that  the  Friendship  now  subsisting  between  Us,  the  Six 
Nations,  Delawares,  Shawonese,  Owendatts,  and  you, 
may  become  as  Strong  as  a  great  Mountain  which  the 
Winds  constantly  blow  against  but  never  overset.  Breth- 
ren, to  assure  you  of  our  hearty  Inclinations  towards  you 
I  make  you  this  Present  of  Goods;  and  that  this  Speech 
which  I  make  you  now  in  Conjunction  with  the  Six 
Nations  may  have  its  full  Force  on  your  minds,  I  present 
you  this  Belt  of  Wampum." — Gave  a  Belt,  which  was 
received  with  the  Yo-hah. 

A  Speech  made  to  the  Six  United  Nations  by  George 


1751]  Croghan' s  Journals  67 

Croghan  in  behalf  of  the  Honourable  James  Hamilton, 
Esquire,  Governor  of  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania: 

"BRETHREN  THE  Six  NATIONS:  Hear  what  I  am 
going  to  say  to  you.  Brethren:  it  is  a  great  while  since 
we,  your  Brothers  the  English,  first  came  over  the  great 
Water  (meaning  the  Sea);  as  soon  as  our  ship  struck  the 
Land  you  the  Six  Nations  took  hold  of  her  and  tyed  her 
to  the  Bushes,  and  for  fear  the  Bushes  would  not  be 
strong  enough  to  hold  her  you  removed  the  Rope  and 
tyed  it  about  a  great  Tree;  then  fearing  the  winds  would 
blow  the  Tree  down,  you  removed  the  Rope  and  tyed  it 
about  a  great  Mountain  in  the  Country  (meaning  the 
Onondago  Country),  and  since  that  time  we  have  lived 
in  true  Brotherly  Love  and  Friendship  together.  Now, 
Brethren,  since  that  there  are  several  Nations  joined  in 
Friendship  with  you  and  Us,  and  of  late  our  Brethren 
the  Twightwees:  Now,  Brethren,  as  you  are  the  Head  of 
all  the  Nations  of  Indians,  I  warmly  recommend  it  to 
you  to  give  our  Brethren  the  Twightwees  your  best  ad- 
vice that  they  may  know  how  to  behave  in  their  New 
Alliance,  and  likewise  I  give  our  Brethren  the  Owendatts 
in  charge  to  you,  that  you  may  Strengthen  them  to  with- 
stand their  Enemies  the  French,  who  I  understand  treat 
them  more  like  Enemies  than  Children  tho'  they  call 
themselves  their  Father. 

"Brethren:  I  hope  we,  your  Brothers  the  English, 
and  you  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  Shawonese,  Owen- 
datts, and  Twightwees,  will  continue  in  such  Brotherly 
Love  and  Friendship  that  it  will  be  as  strong  as  that 
Mountain  to  which  you  tyed  our  Ship.  Now,  Brethren, 
I  am  informed  by  George  Croghan  that  the  French 
obstruct  my  Traders  and  carry  away  their  Persons  and 
Goods,  and  are  guilty  of  many  outrageous  Practices, 


68  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Whereby  the  Roads  are  rendered  unsafe  to  travel  in, 
nor  can  we  ask  our  Traders  to  go  amongst  you  whilst 
their  Lives  and  Effects  are  in  such  great  Danger.  How 
comes  this  to  pass?  Don't  this  proceed  from  the  Pride 
of  Onontio,  whom  the  Indians  call  their  Father,  because 
they  don't  see  his  ill  Designs?  The  strong  houses  you 
gave  him  Leave  to  erect  on  your  Lands  serve  (As  your 
Brethren  the  English  always  told  you)  to  impoverish 
You  and  keep  your  Wives  and  Children  always  naked 
by  keeping  the  English  Traders  at  a  Distance,  the  French 
well  knowing  the  English  sell  their  Goods  cheaper  than 
they  can  afford,  and  I  can  assure  You  Onontio  will  never 
rest  while  an  English  Trader  comes  to  Ohio;  and  indeed 
if  you  don't  open  your  Eyes  and  put  a  Stop  to  his  Pro- 
ceedings he  will  gain  his  Ends.  Brethren:  I  hope  you 
will  consider  well  what  Onontio  means  or  is  about  to  do. 
To  enforce  what  I  have  been  saying  to  you  on  your  minds, 
I  present  this  Belt  of  Wampum." —  Gave  a  Belt.  They 
received  this  Belt  with  Yo-hah. 

The  Speaker  of  the  Six  Nations  made  the  following 
Speech  to  Monsieur  loncoeur  in  open  Council;  he  spoke 
very  quick  and  sharp  with  the  Air  of  a  Warrior: 

"FATHER  —  How  comes  it  that  you  have  broke  the 
General  Peace  ?  Is  it  not  three  years  since  you  as  well  as 
our  Brother  the  English  told  Us  that  there  was  a  Peace 
between  the  English  and  French,  and  how  comes  it  that 
you  have  taken  our  Brothers  as  your  Prisoners  on  our 
Lands  ?  Is  it  not  our  Land  (Stamping  on  the  Ground  and 
putting  his  Finger  to  John  Coeur's  Nose)  ?  What  Right 
has  Onontio  to  our  Lands  ?  I  desire  you  may  go  home 
directly  off  our  Lands  and  tell  Onontio  to  send  us  word 
immediately  what  was  his  Reason  for  using  our  Brothers 
so,  or  what  he  means  by  such  Proceedings,  that  we  may 


1751]  Crogharis  Journals  69 

know  what  to  do,  for  I  can  assure  Onontio  that  We  the 
Six  Nations  will  not  take  such  Usage.  You  hear  what 
I  say,  and  that  is  the  Sentiments  of  all  our  Nations;  tell 
it  to  Onontio  that  that  is  what  the  Six  Nations  said  to 
you." —  Gave  4  Strings  of  black  Wampum. 

After  which  the  Chief  of  the  Indians  ordered  the  Goods 
to  be  divided,  and  appointed  some  of  each  Nation  to 
stand  by  to  see  it  done,  that  those  that  were  absent  might 
have  a  sufficient  Share  laid  by  for  them. 

After  which  the  Chiefs  made  me  a  Speech  and  told  me 
it  was  a  Custom  with  their  Brothers  whenever  they  went 
to  Council  to  have  their  Guns,  Kettles,  and  Hatchets 
mended,  and  desired  I  might  order  that  done,  for  they 
could  not  go  home  till  they  had  that  done.  So  Mr.  Mon- 
tour  and  I  agreed  to  comply  with  their  Request,  and 
ordered  it  done  that  they  might  depart  well  satisfied. 


LETTER  OF  CROGHAN  TO  THE  GOVERNOR,  ACCOMPANY- 
ING THE  FOREGOING  TREATY28 

PENNSBORO',  June  loth,  1751. 

MAY  IT  PLEASE  YOUR  HONOUR:  Inclosed  is  a  Copy  of 
the  Treaty  held  on  Ohio  by  your  Honour's  Instructions 
on  delivering  your  Honour's  Present  to  the  several  Nations 
of  Indians  Residing  there.  I  hope  your  Honour  on  pe- 
rusing the  Proceedings  of  the  Treaty  will  find  that  I  have 
observed  your  Honour's  Instructions  in  every  Speech 
that  I  delivered  from  your  Honour.  I  took  all  the 
Pains  I  could  to  make  the  Present  have  its  full  Force 
and  Weight  with  the  Indians,  and  I  have  the  Pleasure  of 
assuring  your  Honour  that  the  Indians  were  all  unani- 
mously well  pleased  at  your  Honour's  Speeches,  and 
likewise  acknowledged  it  was  a  great  Present,  and  the 
Chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations  took  great  Pains  with  me  in 
dividing  it  amongst  the  other  nations,  that  it  might  have 
its  full  force  with  them,  which  I  assure  your  Honour  it 
had,  for  every  man  I  saw  there  was  well  satisfied  with 
his  share  of  the  Present;  the  Indians  in  general  expressed 
a  high  Satisfaction  at  having  the  Opportunity  in  the 
Presence  of  loncceur  of  expressing  their  hearty  Love 
and  Inclinations  towards  the  English,  and  likewise  to 
assure  your  Honour  what  Contempt  they  had  for  the 
French,  which  your  Honour  will  see  by  the  Speeches  they 
made.  loncceur-Ioncceur  has  sent  a  Letter  to  your 

28  This  letter  accompanied  the  preceding  journal,  and  was  written  on 
Croghan's  return  to  the  settlements.  Pennsbcro  was  the  district  in  Cumber- 
land County  west  of  the  Susquehanna,  in  which  Croghan's  home  was  at  this 
time  situated. —  ED. 


1751]  Crogharfs  'Journals  71 

Honour,  which  I  enclose  here.29  Mr.  Montour  has 
exerted  himself  very  much  on  this  occasion,  and  he  is  not 
only  very  capable  of  doing  the  Business,  but  look'd  on 
amongst  all  the  Indians  as  one  of  their  Chiefs,  I  hope  your 
Honour  will  think  him  worth  notice,  and  recommend  it 
to  the  Assembly  to  make  him  full  Satisfaction  for  his 
Trouble,  as  he  has  employed  all  his  Time  in  the  Business 
of  the  Government.  I  hope  your  Honour  will  recom- 
mend it  to  the  Government  of  Virginia  to  answer  the 
Speech  sent  them  now  in  answer  to  their  own  Speech 
sent  last  Fall,  as  soon  as  possible.  May  it  please  your 
Honour,  I  make  bold  to  send  down  my  Account  against 
the  Province  for  what  Wampum  I  delivered  Mr.  Mon- 
tour to  make  the  Speeches  last  Fall  and  this  Spring,  de- 
livered by  your  Honour's  Instructions.  Mr.  Montour  is 
at  my  House  and  will  wait  on  your  Honour  when  you 
Please  to  appoint  the  time.  I  hope  what  has  been  tran- 
sacted at  this  Treaty  will  be  pleasing  to  your  Honour,  as 
I  am  sure  the  Present  had  its  full  Force,  and  shall  defer 
any  farther  Account  till  you  have  the  opportunity  of 
examining  Mr.  Montour. 

I  am  your  Honour's  most  obedient,  humble  Servant, 
GEORGE  CROGHAN. 

29  The  letter  from  Joncaire  here  referred  to,  is  printed  in  French  in  Pennsyl- 
vania Colonial  Records,  v,  p.  540.  It  consists  merely  of  a  statement  of  the 
French  right  to  the  Ohio  Valley,  and  of  the  orders  of  the  governor  of  Canada  to 
permit  no  English  to  trade  therein. —  ED. 


CROGHAN'S  JOURNAL,  i754.30 

January  i2th,  1754. —  I  arrived  at  Turtle  Creek  about 
eight  miles  from  the  Forks  of  Mohongialo,  where  I  was 

30  This  journal  is  reprinted  from  the  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  731- 
735  (also  found  in  Early  History  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  app.,  pp.  50-53),  and 
chronicles  a  material  change  of  affairs  on  the  Ohio  since  the  last  account  written 
by  Croghan.  Then  the  English  interests  were  in  the  ascendency,  and  the  French 
were  being  flouted  and  driven  from  the  headwaters  of  the  Ohio.  But  the  divi- 
sion in  English  councils,  the  supineness  of  the  colonial  assemblies,  and  the  active 
preparation  and  determined  advance  of  the  French  into  the  upper  Ohio  Valley 
had  had  its  effect  upon  the  Indian  tribes.  Two  years  before,  Trent  had  reported 
all  the  Ohio  tribes  secure  in  the  English  interest;  but  the  same  year  an  expedi- 
tion from  Detroit  had  moved  against  the  recalcitrant  Miamis  (Twigtwees)> 
and  after  inflicting  a  severe  chastisement  had  secured  them  again  to  the  French 
control,  as  Croghan  herein  reports.  Early  the  following  year  the  French 
expedition  under  Marin  had  advanced  to  take  forcible  possession  of  the  Ohio 
country,  and  begin  the  chain  of  posts  necessary  to  its  defense.  Presqu'isle 
and  Le  Boeuf  had  been  built,  while  a  deputation  under  Joncaire  had  seized 
the  English  trader's  house  at  Venango,  and  placed  a  French  flag  above  it.  A 
large  number  of  the  Indians,  frightened  at  this  show  of  force  yielded  to  the 
threatenings  and  cajoleries  of  the  French  officers.  A  small  party,  hoping  to 
obtain  aid  from  the  English  colonists,  had  sent  off  a  deputation  in  the  autumn 
of  1753  to  meet  the  Virginia  authorities  at  Winchester,  and  those  of  Pennsyl- 
vania at  Carlisle,  at  both  of  which  conferences  Croghan  was  in  attendance- 
The  present  which  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  had  voted  the  preceding  May 
(Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  p.  617)  was  cautiously  given  out,  most  of  it 
consisting  of  powder  and  lead;  it  was  feared  with  reason,  that  it  might  be  used  to 
the  disadvantage  of  the  back  settlements.  Croghan  himself,  although  using  every 
endeavor  to  fortify  the  Indians  in  the  English  alliance,  lost  heart  at  the  dilatoriness 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Assembly,  some  of  whose  members  even  doubted  whether 
the  land  invaded  did  not  rightfully  belong  to  the  French.  He  could  wish  with 
all  his  "hart  Some  gentleman  who  is  an  Artist  in  Philadelphia,  and  whos  Acount 
wold  be  Depended  on,  whould  have  ye  Curiosety  to  take  a  Journay  in  those 
parts,"  in  order  to  prove  to  the  province  (by  means  of  a  map)  that  the  lands 
on  which  the  French  were  building  lay  within  .their  jurisdiction  —  (Pennsyl- 
vania Archives,  ii,  p.  132).  Meanwhile,  Washington  had  been  sent  out  by  Din- 
widdie  to  summon  the  French  to  retire.  Croghan,  who  reached  this  territory 
soon  after  Washington's  return,  reports  in  the  following  journal  the  conditions 
on  the  Ohio. —  ED. 


1754]  Crogharfs  Journals  73 

informed  by  John  Frazier,  an  Indian  Trader,31  that  Mr. 
Washington,  who  was  sent  by  the  Governor  of  Virginia 
to  the  French  Camp,  was  returned.  Mr.  Washington 
told  Mr.  Frazier  that  he  had  been  very  well  used  by  the 
French  General;  that  after  he  delivered  his  Message  the 
General  told  him  his  Orders  were  to  take  all  the  English 
he  found  on  the  Ohio,  which  Orders  he  was  determined 
to  obey,  and  further  told  him  that  the  English  had  no 
business  to  trad^  on  the  Ohio,  for  that  all  the  Lands  of 
Ohio  belonged  to  his  Master  the  King  of  France,  all 
to  Alegainay  Mountain.  Mr.  Washington  told  Mr. 
Frazier  the  Fort  where  he  was  is  very  strong,  and  that 
they  had  Abundance  of  Provisions,  but  they  would  not 
let  him  see  their  Magazine;  there  are  about  one  hundred 
Soldiers  and  fifty  Workmen  at  that  Fort,  and  as  many 
more  at  the  Upper  Fort,  and  about  fifty  Men  at  Weningo 
with  Jean  Coeur;  the  Rest  of  their  Army  went  home  last 
Fall,  but  is  to  return  as  soon  as  possible  this  Spring; 
when  they  return  they  are  to  come  down  to  Log's  Town 
in  order  to  build  a  Fort  somewhere  thereabouts.  This 
is  all  I  had  of  Mr.  Washington's  Journey  worth  relating 
to  your  Honour.32 

31  A  year  and  a  half  after  this  visit  of  Croghan's,  Turtle  Creek  was  the  site 
of  Braddock's  defeat.     For  a  description  of  the  battle,  and  the  present  appear- 
ance of  the  site,  see  Thwaites,  How  George  Rogers  Clark  won  the  Northwest 
and  other  Essays  in  Western  History  (Chicago,  1903),  pp.  184,  185. 

John  Frazier,  who  had  his  house  at  the  mouth  of  Turtle  Creek,  was  a  Pennsyl- 
vania trader,  gunsmith,  and  interpreter,  who  had  lived  twelve  years  at  Venango, 
whence  he  was  driven  by  the  invading  French  expedition  the  summer  previous. 
He  assisted  Washington  on  his  journey,  and  the  next  year  (1754)  was  com- 
missioned lieutenant  of  the  militia  forces  under  Trent's  command,  that  were 
to  fortify  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio.—  ED. 

32  The  journal  of  Washington  on  this  journey  was  on  his  return  printed  in 
Winchester  (only  two  copies  of  which  edition  are  known  to  be  extant),  also  in 
London  (1754).     Frequent  reprints  have  been  made,  and  the  journal  has  been 
edited  by  Sparks,  Rupp,  Craig,  Shea,  and  Ford.     The  journal  of  Gist,  who 
accompanied  Washington,  is  found  in  Darlington's  Gist,  pp.  80-87.     Croghan 
gives  a  concise  summary  of  Washington's  mission  and  its  results. —  ED. 


74  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

On  the  thirteenth  I  arrived  at  Shanoppin's  Town, 
where  Mr.  Montour  and  Mr.  Patten  overtook  me.33 

On  the  fourteenth  we  set  off  to  Log's  Town,  where  we 
found  the  Indians  all  drunk;  the  first  Salutation  we  got 
was  from  one  of  the  Shawonese  who  told  Mr.  Montour 
and  myself  we  were  Prisoners,  before  we  had  time  to 
tell  them  that  their  Men  that  were  in  Prison  at  Carolina 
were  released,  and  that  we  had  two  of  them  in  our  Com- 
pany. The  Shawonese  have  been  very  uneasy  about 
those  Men  that  were  in  Prison,  and  had  not  those  Men 
been  released  it  might  have  been  of  very  ill  consequence  at 
this  time;  but  as  soon  as  they  found  their  Men  were 
released  they  seem'd  all  overjoyed,  and  I  believe  will 
prove  true  to  their  Alliance.34 

On  the  fifteenth  Five  Canoes  of  French  came  down  to 
Log's  Town  in  Company  with  the  Half  King35  and  some 
more  of  the  Six  Nations,  in  Number  an  Ensign,  a  Ser- 
jeant, and  Fifteerl  Soldiers. 

33  John   Patten  was  a  Pennsylvania  Indian  trader,  who  was  captured   in 
the  Miami  towns  by  the  order  of  the  French  governor  (1750).     He  and  two 
companions  were  carried  to  Canada,  and  afterwards  sent  to  France,  being 
imprisoned  at  La  Rochelle,  whence  they  appealed  to  the  English  ambassador 
who  secured  their  release.     See  New    York   Colonial  Documents,   x,   p.    241. 
Patten  had  at   this  time  been  sent  to  the  Ohio  with  the  Shawnee  prisoners 
from  South  Carolina.     See  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  730,  731. —  ED. 

34  Six  Shawnee  Indians  had  been  arrested  on  suspicion  of  being  concerned 
in  a  raid,  and  confined  in  the  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  jail.     On  the  request 
of  Governor  Hamilton,  two  were  released  and  sent  to  Philadelphia  to  be  deliv- 
ered to  their  kinsfolk.     The  other  four  made  their  escape.     See  Pennsylvania 
Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  696-700. —  ED. 

35  The  Half-King  was  a  prominent  Seneca  or  Mingo  chief,  whose  home  was 
at  Logstown.     He  was  faithful  to  the  English  interest,  and  accompanied  Wash- 
ington both  on  his  journey  of  1753  and  his  expedition  of  1754;  upon  the  latter, 
he  claimed  to  have  slain  Jumonville  with  his  own  hand.     He  was  decorated  by 
the  governor  of  Virginia  in  recognition  of  his  services,  and  given  the  honorary 
name  of  ' '  Dinwiddie"  in  which  he  took  great  pride.     When  the  French  secured 
the  Ohio  region,  he  removed  under  Croghan's  protection  to  Aughwick  Creek, 
where  he  died  in  October,  1756. —  ED. 


1754]  Crogharis  Journals  75 

On  the  sixteenth  in  the  morning  Mr.  Patten  took  a 
Walk  to  where  the  French  had  pitched  their  Tents,  and 
on  his  returning  back  by  the  Officer's  Tent  he  ordered 
Mr.  Patten  to  be  brought  in  to  him,  on  which  Word  came 
to  the  Town  that  Mr.  Patten  was  taken  Prisoner.  Mr. 
Montour  and  myself  immediately  went  to  where  the 
French  was  encamped,  where  we  found  the  French 
Officer  and  the  Half  King  in  a  high  Dispute.  The 
Officer  told  Mr.  Montour  and  Me  that  he  meant  no  hurt 
to  Mr.  Patton,  but  wondered  he  should  pass  backward 
and  forward  without  calling  in.  The  Indians  were  all 
drunk,  and  seemed  very  uneasy  at  the  French  for  stop- 
ping Mr.  Patten,  on  which  the  Officer  ordered  his  Men 
on  board  their  Canoes  and  set  off  to  a  small  Town  of 
the  Six  Nations  about  two  Miles  below  the  Log's  Town, 
where  he  intends  to  stay  till  the  Rest  of  their  Army 
come  down.  As  to  any  particulars  that  pass'd  between 
the  Officer  and  Mr.  Patten  I  refer  your  Honour  to  Mr. 
Patten. 

By  a  Chickisaw  Man  who  has  lived  amongst  the  Shawo- 
nese  since  he  was  a  Lad,  and  is  just  returned  from  the 
Chickisaw  Country36  where  he  has  been  making  a  Visit  to 
his  Friends,  we  hear  that  there  is  a  large  Body  of  French 
at  the  Falls  of  Ohio,  not  less  he  says  than  a  thousand  Men ; 
that  they  have  abundance  of  Provisions  and  Powder  and 
Lead  with  them,  and  that  they  are  coming  up  the  River 
to  meet  the  Army  from  Canada  coming  down.  He  says 
a  Canoe  with  Ten  French  Men  in  her  came  up  to  the 

38  The  Chickasaws  were  a  tribe  of  Southern  Indians,  domiciled  in  Western 
Tennessee  and  Northern  Mississippi,  who  were  traditional  allies  of  the  English 
and  enemies  of  the  French.  After  the  Natchez  War  in  Louisiana,  the  remnant 
of  that  tribe  took  refuge  with  the  Chickasaws,  who  inflicted  a  severe  defeat  upon 
the  French  (1736),  capturing  and  burning  a  Jesuit  priest  and  several  well-known 
officers. —  ED. 


j6  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Lower  Shawonese  Town  with  him,  but  on  some  of  the 
English  Traders'  threatning  to  take  them  they  set  back 
that  night  without  telling  their  Business. 

By  a  message  sent  here  from  Fort  De  Troit  by  the 
Owendats  to  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  and  Shawonese, 
we  hear  that  the  Ottoways  are  gathering  together  on  this 
Side  Lake  Erie,  several  hundreds  of  them,  in  order  to 
cutt  off  the  Shawonese  at  the  Lower  Shawonese  Town.87 
The  French  and  Ottoways  offered  the  Hatchet  to  the 
Owendats  but  they  refused  to  assist  them. 

We  hear  from  Scarrooyady  that  the  Twightwees  that 
went  last  Spring  to  Canada  to  counsel  with  the  French 
were  returned  last  Fall;  that  they  had  taken  hold  of  the 
French  Hatchet  and  were  entirely  gone  back  to  their  old 
Towns  amongst  the  French. 

From  the  sixteenth  to  the  twenty-sixth  we  could  do 
nothing,  the  Indians  being  constantly  drunk. 

On  the  twenty  sixth  the  French  called  the  Indians  to 
Council  and  made  them  a  Present  of  Goods.  On  the 
Indians  Return  the  Half  King  told  Mr.  Montour  and  me 
he  would  take  an  Opportunity  to  repeat  over  to  Us  what 
the  French  said  to  them. 

On  the  twenty-seventh  We  called  the  Indians  to  Coun- 
cil, and  cloathed  the  Two  Shawonese  according  to  the 
Indian  Custom,  and  delivered  them  up  in  Council  with 
your  Honour's  Speeches,  sent  by  Mr.  Patten,  which  Mr. 
Montour  adapted  to  Indian  Forms  as  much  as  was  in  his 
Power  or  mine. 

On  the  twenty-eighth  We  called  the  Indians  to  Council 


87  The  Ottawas  were  an  Algonquian  tribe,  domiciled  in  Michigan  about  the 
posts  of  Mackinac  and  Detroit.  Faithful  to  the  French  interests,  they  were 
doubtless  acting  under  the  directions  of  their  commandants  in  gathering  to 
attack  the  Shawnees  on  the  Scioto. —  ED. 


1754]  Crogharis  Journals  77 

again,  and  delivered  them  a  large  Belt  of  Black  and  White 
Wampum  in  Your  Honour's  and  the  Governor  of  Vir- 
ginia's Name,  by  which  we  desired  they  might  open 
their  Minds  to  your  Honour,  and  speak  from  their  Hearts 
and  not  from  their  Lips ;  and  that  they  might  now  inform 
your  Honour  by  Mr.  Andrew  Montour,  whom  You  had 
chosen  to  transact  Business  between  You  and  your 
Brethren  at  Ohio,  whether  that  Speech  which  they  sent 
your  Honour  by  Lewis  Montour  was  agreed  on  in  Council 
or  not,  and  assured  them  they  might  freely  open  their 
Minds  to  their  Brethren  your  Honour  and  the  Governor 
of  Virginia,  as  the  only  Friends  and  Brethren  they  had 
to  depend  on.  Gave  the  Belt. 

After  delivering  the  Belt  Mr.  Montour  gave  them  the 
Goods  left  in  my  Care  by  your  Honour's  Commissioners 
at  Carlisle,  and  at  the  same  time  made  a  Speech  to  them 
to  let  them  know  that  those  Goods  were  for  the  Use  of 
their  Warriors  and  Defence  of  their  Country. 

As  soon  as  the  Goods  were  delivered  the  Half  King 
made  a  Speech  to  the  Shawonese  and  Delawares,  and 
told  them  as  their  Brother  Onas  had  sent  them  a  large 
Supply  of  Necessaries  for  the  Defence  of  their  Country, 
that  he  would  put  it  in  their  Care  till  all  their  Warriors 
would  have  Occasion  to  call  for  it,  as  their  Brethren  the 
English  had  not  yet  got  a  strong  House  to  keep  such 
Things  safe  in. 

The  Thirty-First  A  Speech  delivered  by  the  Half  King 
in  Answer  to  your  Honour's  Speeches  on  delivering  the 
Shawonese : 

' '  BROTHER  ONAS  : —  We  return  You  our  hearty  Thanks 
for  the  Trouble  You  have  taken  in  sending  for  our  poor 
Relations  the  Shawonese,  and  with  these  four  Strings 
of  Wampum  we  clear  your  Eyes  and  Hearts,  that  You 


78  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

may  see  your  Brothers  the  Shawonese  clear  as  You  used 
to  do,  and  not  think  that  any  small  Disturbance  shall 
obstruct  the  Friendship  so  long  subsisting  between  You 
and  us  your  Brethren,  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  and 
Shawonese.  We  will  make  all  Nations  that  are  in  Alli- 
ance with  Us  acquainted  with  the  Care  You  have  had  of 
our  People  at  such  a  great  distance  from  both  You  and 
Us. " —  Gave  Four  Strings  of  Wampum. 

A  Speech  Delivered  by  the  Half  King 
"Brethren  the  Governors  of  Pennsylvania  and  Vir- 
ginia: You  desire  Us  to  open  our  Minds  to  You  and  to 
speak  from  our  Hearts,  which  we  assure  You,  Brethren,  we 
do.  You  desire  We  may  inform  you  whether  that  Speech 
sent  by  Lewis  Montour  was  agreed  on  in  Council  or  not, 
Which  we  now  assure  You  it  was  in  part;  but  that  Part 
of  giving  the  Lands  to  pay  the  Traders'  Debts  We  know 
nothing  of  it;  it  must  have  been  added  by  the  Traders 
that  wrote  the  Letter;38  but  we  earnestly  requested  by 
that  Belt,  and  likewise  we  now  request  that  our  Brother 
the  Governor  of  Virginia  may  build  a  Strong  House  at 
the  Forks  of  the  Mohongialo,  and  send  some  of  our  young 
Brethren,  their  Warriors,  to  live  on  it;  and  we  expect 
our  Brother  of  Pennsylvania  will  build  another  House 
somewhere  on  the  River  where  he  shall  think  proper, 
where  whatever  assistance  he  will  think  proper  to  send 

38  Lewis  Montour,  a  brother  of  Andrew,  had  come  the  previous  autumn  to 
the  governor  of  Pennsylvania,  with  a  message  purporting  to  have  been  sent  by 
the  Ohio  Indians;  they  were  represented  as  requesting  help  against  the  French, 
and  the  building  of  forts  on  the  river,  and  as  offering  all  the  lands  east  of  the 
river  to  pay  the  debts  of  the  traders.  As  the  character  of  those  who  claimed  to 
have  obtained  this  treaty  was  open  to  suspicion,  the  governor  had  sent  Croghan 
and  Andrew  Montour  to  ascertain  the  truth  of  the  matter.  The  unauthorized 
insertion  of  so  great  a  land  grant,  is  a  good  specimen  of  the  methods  by  which 
the  unprincipled  traders  sought  to  take  advantage  of  the  Indians.  See  Penn- 
sylvania Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  691-696. —  ED. 


1754]  Crogharis  Journals  79 

us  may  be  kept  safe  for  us,  as  our  Enemies  are  just  at 
hand,  and  we  do  not  know  what  Day  they  may  come 
upon  Us.  We  now  acquaint  our  Brethren  that  we  have 
our  Hatchet  in  our  Hands  to  strike  the  Enemy  as  soon  as 
our  Brethren  come  to  our  assistance." 

Gave  a  Belt  and  Eight  Strings  of  Wampum. 

THE  HALF  KING, 
SCARROOYADY, 
NEWCOMER, 
COSWENTANNEA, 
TONELAGUESONA, 
SHINGASS, 

DELAWARE  GEORGE. 

After  the  Chiefs  had  signed  the  last  Speech,  the  Half 
King  repeated  over  the  French  Council,  which  was  as 
follows: 

"CHILDREN:  I  am  come  here  to  tell  you  that  your 
Father  is  coming  here  to  visit  you  and  to  take  You  under 
his  care,  and  I  desire  You  may  not  listen  to  any  ill  News 
You  hear,  for  I  assure  you  he  will  not  hurt  You;  'Tis  true 
he  has  something  to  say  to  your  Brethren  the  English, 
but  do  you  sit  still  and  do  not  mind  what  your  Father  does 
to  your  Brothers,  for  he  will  not  suffer  the  English  to 
live  or  tread  on  this  River  Ohio;"- -on  which  he  made 
them  a  Present  of  Goods. 

February  the  First. —  By  a  Cousin  of  Mr.  Montour's 
that  came  to  Log's  town  in  company  with  a  Frenchman 
from  Weningo  by  Land,  we  hear  that  the  French  expect 
Four  Hundred  Men  every  Day  to  the  Fort  above  Weningo, 
and  as  soon  as  they  come  they  are  to  come  down  the 
River  to  Log's  town  to  take  possession  from  the  English 
till  the  rest  of  the  Army  comes  in  the  Spring. 

The  Frenchman  that  came  here  in  company  with  Mr. 


80  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Montour's  Cousin,  is  Keeper  of  the  King's  Stores,  and  I 
believe  the  chief  of  his  Business  is  to  take  a  view  of  the 
Country  and  to  see  what  Number  of  English  there  is 
here,  and  to  know  how  the  Indians  are  affected  to  the 
French. 

February  the  Second. — Just  as  we  were  leaving  the 
Log's  Town,  the  Indians  made  the  following  Speech: 

"Brethren  the  Governors  of  Pennsylvania  and  Vir- 
ginia: we  have  opened  our  Hearts  to  You  and  let  you 
know  our  Minds;  we  now,  by  these  two  Strings  of  black 
Wampum,  desire  You  may  directly  send  to  our  Assistance 
that  You  and  We  may  secure  the  Lands  of  Ohio,  for  there 
is  nobody  but  You  our  Brethren  and  ourselves  have  any 
Right  to  the  Lands;  but  if  you  do  not  send  immediately 
we  shall  surely  be  cut  of[f]  by  our  Enemy  the  French." — 
Gave  two  Strings  of  black  Wampum. 

February  the  Second. —  A  Speech  made  by  Shingass, 
King  of  the  Delawares. 

"BROTHER  ONAS:  I  am  glad  to  hear  all  our  People 
here  are  of  one  mind;  it  is  true  I  live  here  on  the  River 
Side,  which  is  the  French  Road,  and  I  assure  you  by 
these  Strings  of  Wampum  that  I  will  neither  go  down  or 
up,  but  I  will  move  nearer  to  my  Brethren  the  English, 
where  I  can  keep  our  Women  and  Children  safe  from  the 
Enemy."39 —  Gave  Three  Strings  of  Wampum. 

39  Shingas,  brother  of  King  Beaver,  was  one  of  the  principal  leaders  of  the 
Delaware  Indians  on  the  Ohio,  where  he  had  a  town  at  the  mouth  of  Beaver 
Creek.  Shortly  after  this  meeting  with  Croghan,  he  deserted  to  the  French^ 
and  his  braves  were  a  terror  to  the  border  settlers.  Governor  Denny  of  Pennsyl- 
vania set  a  price  of  £200  upon  his  head.  Post  had  a  conference  with  Shingas 
(1758),  and  persuaded  him  to  return  to  the  English  alliance;  nevertheless,  at 
the  occupation  of  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio  by  the  English,  Shingas  with  his  band 
retreated  to  the  Muskingum.  The  last  mention  of  him  seems  to  be  in  1762 
(Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  viii,  p.  690),  and  he  appears  to  have  died  before 
the  conspiracy  of  Pontiac  (1763),  in  which  his  tribe  took  part. —  ED. 


1754]  Croghans  Journals  81 

The  above  is  a  true  account  of  our  Proceedings,  taken 
down  by  Your  Honour's  most  obedient  humble  Servant. 

GEORGE  CROGHAN. 
3d  February,  1754. 

The  Honourable  James  Hamilton  Esquire. 


CROGHAN  TO  CHARLES  SWAINE  AT  SmppENSBURG40 

•    AUGHWICK,  October  pth,  1755. 

DEAR  SIR:  On  my  return  home  I  met  with  an  Indian 
from  Ohio  who  gives  me  the  following  accounts:  That 
about  14  days  ago  he  left  Ohio,  at  that  time  there  was 
about  1 60  Men  ready  to  set  out  to  harrass  the  English 
which  probably  they  be  those  doing  the  Mischiefs  on 
Potomack.  He  says  the  French  Fort  is  not  very  strong 
with  men  at  present.  He  likewise  says  that  he  is  of 
opinion  the  Indians  will  do  no  mischief  on  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  Pennsylvania  till  they  can  draw  all  the  Indians 
out  of  the  Province  and  off  Sasquehanna,  which  they  are 
now  industriously  endeavouring  to  do;  and  he  desires  me 
as  soon  as  I  see  the  Indians  remove  from  Sasquehanna 
back  to  Ohio  to  shift  my  quarters,  for  he  says  that  the 
French  will,  if  possible,  lay  all  the  back  frontiers  in  ruins 
this  Winter. 

This  man  was  sent  by  a  few  of  my  old  Indian  Friends 
to  give  me  this  caution,  that  I  might  save  my  scalps, 
which  he  says  would  be  no  small  Prize  to  the  French; 

40  This  letter  is  reprinted  from  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  vi,  pp.  642 
643.  In  the  interval  between  this  and  the  preceding  document,  momentous  events, 
in  which  Croghan  had  a  full  share,  had  occurred  on  the  Ohio.  The  governor  of 
Virginia  had  engaged  him  to  act  as  interpreter  in  Colonel  Washington's  army 
—  see ' '  Dinwiddie  Papers/ '  Virginia  Historical  Collections  (Richmond,  1883-84), 
*,  p.  187  —  and  he  had  been  present  at  the  affair  of  the  Great  Meadows.  Dur- 
ing the  period  between  this  and  Braddock's  expedition,  Croghan  had  been 
busily  employed  in  bringing  over  as  many  Indians  as  possible  to  the  English 
cause,  and  he  had  led  the  Indian  contingent  to  Braddock's  aid  (see  post). 
After  the  battle  of  the  Monongahela,  Croghan  returned  to  his  home  at  Augh- 
wick  Creek,  caring  at  his  own  expense  for  the  few  Indians  who  remained  firm 
in  the  English  interest,  and  planning  to  defend  his  settlement  by  a  stockade 
fort.  A  bill  for  his  relief  (he  had  lost  all  of  his  trading  equipment)  passed 
the  Pennsylvania  Assembly.  Although  holding  no  provincial  office,  his  knowl- 
edge of  the  frontier  situation  was  much  relied  on  in  this  extremity. —  ED. 


1755]  Croghari  s  ^Journals  83 

and  he  has  ordered  me  to  keep  it  private  so  that  I  don't 
intend  to  communicate  it  to  any  body  but  you.  I  don't 
know  whether  the  Governor  should  be  made  acquainted 
with  it  or  no;  but  if  you  judge  it  proper  write  the  Gover- 
nor the  whole,  but  at  the  same  time  request  him  to  keep 
it  a  secret  from  whom  he  had  his  Information,  for  if  it 
should  be  made  publick  to  the  Interpreters  or  Indians  it 
may  cost  me  and  the  man  I  had  my  Information  from 
our  Lives;  and,  moreover,  the  best  method  to  frustrate 
their  Designs  will  be  for  the  Governor  not  to  let  the  Indians 
know  that  he  is  acquainted  with  their  design,  but  to 
conduct  the  affair  privately,  so  as  not  to  let  the  Indians 
know  he  has  any  suspicion  of  them.  Indeed  it  is  only 
what  I  thought  the  Indians  always  aimed  at,  and  what 
I  feared  they  would  accomplish,  for  I  see  all  our  great 
Directors  of  Indian  affairs  are  very  short  sighted,  and 
glad  I  am  that  I  have  no  hand  in  Indian  affairs  at  this  criti- 
cal time,  where  no  fault  can  be  thrown  on  my  shoulders. 

I  am,  Dear  Sir,  Your  most  humble  Servant, 

GEO.  CROGHAN. 
To  Mr.  Charles  Swaine. 

P.  S. —  Sir,  if  you  could  possibly  Lend  me  6  guns  with 
powder,  20  of  lead  by  the  bearer,  I  will  return  them  in 
about  15  days,  when  I  can  get  some  from  the  Mouth  of 
Conegochege.  I  hope  to  have  my  Stockade  finished  by 
the  middle  of  next  week.41  G.  C. 

41  This  stockade  fort  was  built  on  Aughwick  Creek,  where  stands  the  present 
town  of  Shirleysburg.  It  was  known  first  as  Fort  Croghan,  then  a  private 
enterprise;  but  later  in  the  same  year  (1755),  a  fort  was  built  on  this  site  by 
order  of  the  government  and  named  for  General  Shirley,  commander-in-chief 
of  the  British  forces  in  North  America.  Governor  Morris  wrote,  afler  a  visit 
to  this  fort  in  January,  1756,  that  seventy-five  men  were  garrisoned  therein 
{Pennsylvania  Archives,  ii,  p.  556).  It  was  appointed  as  the  rendezvous  for 
Armstrong's  expedition  against  Kittanning  in  August  of  this  same  year;  but  by 
October  15  the  site  had  grown  so  dangerous  that  the  governor  ordered  it  aban- 
doned.—  ED. 


A  COUNCIL  HELD  AT  CARLISLE,  TUESDAY  THE 
JANUARY,  1756^ 

Present: 

The  Honourable  ROBERT  HUNTER  MORRIS,"  Esq., 
Lieutenant  Governor. 

JAMES  HAMILTON          WILLIAM  LOGAN,  )  ^ 

RICHARD  PETERS,  ]  Esqmres' 

JOSEPH  Fox,  Esquire,  Commissioner, 

MR.  CROGHAN. 

Mr.  Croghan  having  been  desired  by  the  Governor  in 
December  last  to  do  all  in  his  Power  to  gain  Intelligence 
of  the  Motions  and  Designs  of  the  Indians,  and  being 
now  in  Town  was  sent  for  into  Council,  and  at  the  In- 
stance of  the  Governor  gave  the  following  Information, 
viz:  "That  he  sent  Delaware  Jo,  one  of  our  Friendly 
Indians,  to  the  Ohio  for  Intelligence,  who  returned  to  his 
House  at  Aucquick  the  eighth  Instant,  and  informed 
him  that  he  went  to  Kittannin,  an  Indian  Delaware  Town 
on  the  Ohio  about  forty  Miles  above  Fort  Duquesne,  the 

42  This  account  of  the  situation  on  the  Ohio,  obtained  from  the  journey  of  a 
Delaware  Indian,  is  reprinted  from  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  vi,  pp.  781, 
782.     Since  the  last  letter  written  by  Croghan,  the  Assembly  had  passed  a  militia 
bill  (November,  1755),  and  Franklin  had  been  commissioned  to  take  charge  of 
the  erection  of  a  series  of  frontier  forts.     Croghan  was  commissioned  captain, 
and  promptly  raising  a  company,  entered  with  zeal  upon  the  work.     For  his 
instructions,  see  Pennsylvania  Archives,  ii,  p.  536. —  ED. 

43  Robert  Hunter  Morris,  son  of  Lewis  Morris,  prominent  colonial  statesman 
and  governor  of  New  Jersey,  was  born  at  Morrisania,  New  York,  about  1700. 
Having  been  educated  for  the  law,  he  became  chief-justice  of  New  Jersey  (1738)* 
a  position  held  until  his  death  in  1764.     The  Pennsylvania  proprietors  chose 
him  as  lieutenant-governor  to  succeed  Hamilton  1^1754;  during  his  term  of 
office  he  vigorously  defended  the  province,  but  engaged  in  constant  disputes 
with  the  Quaker  party  in  the  Assembly.     The  annoyance  arising  from  this 
caused  him  to  resign  in  1756. —  ED. 


1756]  Grogharis  Journals  85 

Residence  of  Chingas  and  Captain  Jacobs,  where  he  found 
one  hundred  and  forty  Men  chiefly  Delawares  and  Shawo- 
nese,  who  had  then  with  them  above  one  hundred  Eng- 
lish Prisoners  big  and  little  taken  from  Virginia  and 
Pennsylvania. 

That  there  the  Beaver,44  Brother  of  Chingas,  told  him 
that  the  Governor  of  Fort  Duquesne45  had  often  offered 
the  French  Hatchet  to  the  Shawonese  and  Delawares, 
who  had  as  often  refused  it,  declaring  they  would  do  as 
they  should  be  advised  by  the  Six  Nations;  but  that  in 
April  or  May  last  a  Party  of  Six  Nation  Warriors  in 
Company  with  some  Caghnawagos46  and  Adirondacks 
called  at  the  French  Fort  in  their  going  to  War  against  the 
Southern  Indians,  and  on  these  the  Governor  of  Fort 

44  King  Beaver  (Tamaque)  was  head  chief  of  the  Delaware  Indians  on  the 
Ohio,  with  headquarters  at  the  mouth  of  Beaver  Creek.  He  was  somewhat 
half-hearted  in  the  English  service,  but  protested  his  desire  to  preserve  the 
alliance  until  after  Braddock's  defeat,  when  he  openly  took  the  hatchet  against 
the  English  settlements.  Post  met  him  upon  the  Ohio  in  1758,  and  secured 
a  conditional  agreement  to  remain  neutral;  but  after  the  English  occupation 
of  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio,  he  retreated  to  the  Muskingum,  where  a  town  was 
named  for  him.  He  took  part  in  the  treaties  with  the  English  in  1760  and  1762 ; 
but  was  one  of  the  ring-leaders  in  the  conspiracy  of  Pontiac  (1763).  After 
Bouquet's  advance  into  his  territory,  he  reluctantly  made  peace,  and  delivered 
up  his  English  prisoners.  He  died  about  1770,  having  in  his  later  years 
passed  under  the  influence  of  the  Moravian  missionaries,  and  become  one  of 
their  most  eminent  disciples. —  ED. 

46  Fort  Duquesne,  built  at  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio  in  1754,  was  first  com- 
manded by  Contrecceur;  but  in  the  September  following  the  battle  of  the 
Monongahela,  Captain  Dumas,  who  had  distinguished  himself  at  that  engage- 
ment, was  made  commandant.  He  was  an  officer  of  great  ability,  and  while 
he  sent  out  parties  against  the  frontier,  his  instructions  to  one  subordinate 
(Donville,  captured  in  1756)  were  to  use  measures  "consistent  with  honor  and 
humanity."  Dumas  was  superseded  in  1756  by  De  Ligneris,  who  remained  in 
command  at  Fort  Duquesne  until  ordered  to  demolish  the  post,  and  retire 
before  Forbes's  advancing  army  (1758). —  ED. 

46  The  Caghnawagos  (Caughnawagas)  were  the  Iroquois  of  the  mission 
village  of  that  name,  about  six  miles  above  Montreal. —  ED. 


86  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Duquesne  prevailed  to  offer  the  French  Hatchet  to  the 
Delawares  and  Shawonese  who  received  it  from  them 
and  went  directly  against  Virginia. 

That  neither  the  Beaver  nor  several  others  of  the  Shawo- 
nese and  Delawares  approved  of  this  measure  nor  had 
taken  up  the  Hatchet,  and  the  Beaver  believed  some  of 
those  who  had  were  sorry  for  what  they  had  done,  and 
would  be  glad  to  make  up  Matters  with  the  English. 

That  from  Kittannin  he  went  to  the  Log's  Town,  where 
he  found  about  one  hundred  Indians  and  thirty  English 
Prisoners  taken  by  the  Shawonese  living  at  the  Lower 
Shawonese  Town  from  the  western  Frontier  of  Virginia 
and  sent  up  to  Log's  Town.  He  was  told  the  same  thing 
by  these  Shawonese  that  the  Beaver  had  told  him  before 
respecting  their  striking  the  English  by  the  advise  of  some 
of  the  Six  Nations,  and  further  he  was  informed  that  the 
French  had  sollicited  the  Indians  to  sell  them  the  English 
Prisoners,  which  they  had  refused,  declaring  they  would 
not  dispose  of  them,  but  keep  them  until  they  should 
receive  Advice  from  the  Six  Nations  what  to  do  with  them. 

That  there  are  more  or  less  of  the  Six  Nations  living 
with  the  Shawonese  and  Delawares  in  their  Towns,  and 
these  always  accompanied  them  in  their  Incursions  upon 
the  English  and  took  Part  with  them  in  the  War. 

That  when  at  Log's  Town,  which  is  near  Fort  Duquesne, 
on  the  opposite  Side  of  the  River,  he  intended  to  have 
gone  there  to  see  what  the  French  were  doing  in  that 
Fort,  but  could  not  cross  the  River  for  the  driving  of  the 
Ice;  he  was,  however,  informed  the  Number  of  the  French 
did  not  exceed  four  hundred. 

That  he  returned  to  Kittannin,  and  there  learned  that 
Ten  Delawares  were  gone  to  the  Sasquehannah,  and  as 
he  supposed  to  persuade  those  Indians  to  strike  the  Eng- 


1756]  Croghatis  Journals  87 

lish  who  might  perhaps  be  concerned  in  the  Mischief 
lately  done  in  the  County  of  Northampton.47 

No  more  than  Seven  Indians  being  as  yet  come  to 
Carlisle  Mr.  Croghan  was  asked  the  Reason  of  it;  he  said 
that  the  Indians  were  mostly  gone  an  hunting,  but  he 
expected  as  many  more  at  least  would  come  in  a  day  or 
two. 

Mr.  Weiser  was  then  sent  for  and  it  was  taken  into 
Consideration  what  should  be  said  to  the  Indians. 

47  This  reference  is  to  the  massacre  of  the  Moravian  settlers  at  Gnaden- 
mitten,  in  November,  1755. —  ED. 


CROGHAN'S  TRANSACTIONS  WITH  THE  INDIANS  PREVIOUS 
TO  HOSTILITIES  ON  THE  OHIO  48 

In  November  1748  Mr  Hamilton  arrived  in  Philadel- 
phia, Governor  of  Pennsylvania.  During  the  late  war 

48  This  paper  is  reprinted  from  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  pp. 
267-271.  It  accompanied  a  letter  from  Croghan  to  Sir  William  Johnson,  in 
which  he  says,  "Inclosed  you  have  a  copy  of  some  extracts  from  my  old 
journals  relating  to  Indian  Affairs,  from  the  time  of  Mr.  Hamilton's  arrival 
as  Governour  of  this  Province  till  the  defeat  of  General  Braddock;  all  which 
you  may  depend  upon  are  facts,  and  will  appear  upon  the  records  of  Indian 
Affairs  in  ye  several  Governments.' ' 

After  Croghan  had  been  commissioned  captain  by  the  Pennsylvania  authori- 
ties, "he  continued  in  Command  of  one  of  the  Companies  he  had  raised,  and 
of  Fort  Shirley  on  the  Western  frontier  about  three  months,  during  which 
time  he  sent,  by  my  direction,  Indian  Messengers  to  the  Ohio  for  Intelligence, 
but  never  procured  me  any  that  was  very  material,  and  having  a  dispute  with 
the  Commissr8  about  some  accounts  between  them,  in  which  he  thought  him- 
self ill-used;  he  resigned  his  commission,  and  about  a  month  ago  informed  me 
that  he  had  not  received  pay  upon  Gen1  Braddock's  warrant,  and  desired  my 
recommendation  to  Gen1  Shirley,  which  I  gave  him,  and  he  set  off  directly 
for  Albany,  &  I  hear  is  now  at  Onondago  with  Sr  Wm  Johnson." — (Letter  of 
Governor  Morris,  July  5,  1756,  in  Pennsylvania  Archives,  ii,  pp.  689,  690.) 

Sir  William  Johnson,  having  more  penetration  than  the  Pennsylvania  au- 
thorities as  to  the  value  of  Croghan's  services,  immediately  appointed  him  his 
deputy,  in  which  position  he  continued  for  several  years.  When  he  presented 
himself  to  the  governor's  council  in  Philadelphia,  December  14,  1756,  "the 
Council  knowing  Mr.  Croghan's  Circumstances  was  not  a  little  surprised  at 
the  Appointment,  and  desired  to  see  his  Credentials" —  (Pennsylvania  Colonial 
Records,  vii,  p.  355).  In  regard  to  his  services  during  this  period,  see  New 
York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  pp.  136,  174,  175,  196,  211,  246,  277,  280;  Penn- 
sylvania Colonial  Records,  vii,  pp.  435,  465,  484,  506;  viii,  175;  Pennsylvania 
Archives,  iii,  pp.  319,  544. 

Sir  William  Johnson  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1715,  came  to  New  York  at  an 
early  age ,  and  settled  as  a  trader  in  the  Mohawk  Valley.  He  was  adopted  into 
the  Iroquois  nation,  and  acquired  power  in  their  national  councils,  retaining 
them  in  the  English  interest  during  the  French  and  Indian  War.  After  the 
battle  of  Lake  George,  Johnson  was  rewarded  with  a  baronetcy,  and  secured 
the  surrender  of  Niagara  in  1759.  From  that  time  until  his  death  in  1774,  he 
was  occupied  with  Indian  negotiations,  chief  of  which  was  the  treaty  of  Fort 
Stanwix  (1768).—  ED. 


1757]  Croghan's  Journals  89 

all  the  Indian  tribes  living  on  the  Ohio  and  the  branches 
thereof,  on  this  side  Lake  Erie,  were  in  strict  friendship 
with  the  English  in  the  several  Provinces,  and  took  the 
greatest  care  to  preserve  the  friendship  then  subsisting 
between  them  and  us.  At  that  time  we  carried  on  a 
considerable  branch  of  trade  with  those  Indians  for 
skins  and  furrs,  no  less  advantagious  to  them  than  to  us. 
We  sold  them  goods  on  much  better  terms  than  the  French, 
which  drew  many  Indians  over  the  Lakes  to  trade  with 
us.  The  exports  of  skins  and  furs  from  this  Province  at 
that  time  will  shew  the  increase  of  our  trade  in  them 
articles. 

In  August  1749.  Governor  Hamilton  sent  me  to  the 
Ohio  with  a  message  to  the  Indians,  to  notifie  to  them 
the  Cessation  of  Arms,  and  to  enquire  of  the  Indians  the 
reason  of  the  march  of  Monsieur  Celaroon  with  two 
hundred  French  soldiers  through  their  country  (This 
detachment  under  Monsieur  Celaroon  had  passed  by 
the  Logs  Town  before  I  reached  it.) 

After  I  had  delivered  my  message  to  the  Indians,  I 
inquired  what  the  French  Commander  said  to  them. 
They  told  me  he  said  he  was  only  come  to  visit  them, 
and  see  how  they  were  cloathed,  for  their  Father  the 
Governor  of  Canada  was  determined  to  take  great  care 
of  all  his  children  settled  on  the  Ohio,  and  desired  they 
wou'd  turn  away  all  the  English  traders  from  amongst 
them,  for  their  Father  would  not  suffer  them  to  trade 
there  any  more,  but  would  send  traders  of  his  own,  who 
would  trade  with  them  on  reasonabler  terms  than  the 
English. 

I  then  asked  them  if  they  really  thought  that  was  the 
intention  of  the  French  coming  at  that  time:  They  an- 
swered, yes,  they  believed  the  French  not  only  wanted 


90  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

to  drive  the  English  traders  off,  that  they  might  have  the 
trade  to  themselves;  but  that  they  had  also  a  further 
intention  by  their  burrying  iron  plates  with  inscriptions 
on  them  in  the  mouth  of  every  remarkable  Creek,  which 
we  know  is  to  steal  our  country  from  us.  But  we  will 
go  to  the  Onondago  Council  and  consult  them  how  we 
may  prevent  them  from  defrauding  us  of  our  land. 

At  my  return  I  acquainted  the  Governor  what  passed 
between  the  Indians  and  me. 

This  year  the  Governor  purchased  a  tract  of  land  on 
the  East  of  Susquehannah  for  the  Proprietaries,  at  which 
time  the  Indians  complained  that  the  White  People  was 
encroaching  on  their  lands  on  the  West  side  of  Susque- 
hannah, and  desired  that  the  Governor  might  turn  them 
off,  as  those  lands  were  the  hunting-grounds  of  the  Susque- 
hannah Indians. 

At  that  time  the  Six  Nations  delivered  a  string  of  Wam- 
pum from  the  Connays,  desiring  their  Brother  Onas  to 
make  the  Connays  some  satisfaction  for  their  settlement 
at  the  Connay  Town  in  Donegal,49  which  they  had  lately 
left  and  settled  amongst  the  Susquehannah  Indians  which 
town  had  been  reserved  for  their  use  at  that  time  their 
Brother  Onas  had  made  a  purchase  of  the  land  adjoining 
to  that  town. 

In  November  [1750]  I  went  to  the  country  of  the 
Twightwees  by  order  of  the  Governor  with  a  small 
present  to  renew  the  chain  of  friendship,  in  company 

48  Donegal  was  an  old  town  on  the  east  side  of  the  Susquehanna,  situated 
between  the  Conewago  and  Chiques  creeks,  in  the  northwestern  angle  of  the 
county  of  Lancaster  (Scull's  Map  of  Pennsylvania),  where  these  Indians  have 
left  their  name  to  the  Conoy,  or  as  it  is  now  called,  Coney  Creek.  Memoirs  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society,  iv,  part  ii,  p.  210.  The  Conoys  were  origi- 
nally from  Piscataway,  in  Maryland,  whence  they  moved  to  an  island  in  the 
Potomac,  and,  on  the  invitation  of  William  Penn,  removed  to  the  Susquehanna  — 
(Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  iv,  p.  657). —  E.  B.  O'CALLAGHAN. 


1757]  Crogharfs  Journals  91 

with  Mr  Montour  Interpreter;  on  our  journey  we  met  Mr 
Gist,  a  messenger  from  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  who 
was  sent  to  invite  the  Ohio  Indians  to  meet  the  Com- 
missioners of  Virginia  at  the  Logs  town  in  the  Spring 
following  to  receive  a  present  of  goods  which  their  father 
the  King  of  Great  Britain  had  sent  them.50  Whilst  I 
was  at  the  T  wight  wee  town  delivering  the  present  and 
message,  there  came  several  of  the  Chiefs  of  the  Wawi- 
oughtanes  and  Pianguisha  Nations,  living  on  Wabash, 
and  requested  to  be  admitted  into  the  chain  of  friendship 
between  the  English  and  the  Six  Nations  and  their  allies; 
which  request  I  granted  &  exchanged  deeds  of  friend- 
ship with  them,  with  a  view  of  extending  His  Majesty's 
Indian  interest,  and  made  them  a  small  present.  On 
my  return  I  sent  a  coppy  of  my  proceedings  to  the  Gover- 
nor. On  his  laying  it  before  the  House  of  Assembly,  it 
was  rejected  and  myself  condemned  for  bad  conduct  in 


50  Christopher  Gist  was  of  English  descent,  and  a  native  of  Maryland.  In 
early  life  he  removed  to  the  frontiers  of  North  Carolina,  where  he  became  so 
expert  in  surveying  and  woodcraft,  that  he  was  employed  for  two  successive 
years  by  the  Ohio  Company  in  inspecting  and  surveying  the  Western  country- 
It  was  on  his  first  journey  (1750-51)  that  he  encountered  Croghan,  when  they 
travelled  together  to  Pickawillany  (the  Twigtwee  town),  and  Gist  con- 
tinued via  the  Scioto  River  and  the  Kentucky  country  back  to  Virginia.  On 
the  second  journey  (1751-52),  he  explored  the  West  Virginia  region.  His 
most  noted  adventure  was  accompanying  Major  George  Washington  in 
the  autumn  of  1753  to  the  French  forts  in  Northwest  Pennsylvania.  Earlier 
in  the  same  year,  Gist  had  made  a  settlement  near  Mount  Braddock,  Fayette 
County,  Pennsylvania,  and  under  the  auspices  of  the  Ohio  Company  was  en- 
listing settlers  for  the  region.  Eleven  came  out  in  the  spring  of  1754,  and  a 
stockade  fort  was  begun.  This  was  utilized  during  Washington's  campaign, 
but  burned  by  the  French  after  the  defeat  at  Great  Meadows.  Gist  later 
petitioned  the  Virginia  House  of  Burgesses  for  indemnity,  but  his  request  was 
rejected.  Both  Gist  and  his  son  served  with  Braddock  as  scouts,  and  after 
his  defeat,  raised  a  company  of  militia  to  protect  the  frontiers.  After  serving 
for  a  time  as  deputy  Indian  agent  for  the  Southern  Indians,  he  died  in  1759, 
either  in  South  Carolina  or  Georgia.  One  of  his  sons  was  killed  at  the  battle 
of  King's  Mountain  (1780). —  ED. 


92  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

drawing  an  additionall  expence  on  the  Government,  and 
the  Indians  were  neglected.51 

At  the  time  that  the  Secretary,  the  provincial  Interpre- 
ter, with  the  Justice  of  Cumberland  County  and  the 
Sheriff  were  ordered  to  dispossess  the  people  settled  on 
the  unpurchased  lands  on  the  West  side  of  Susquehannah, 
and  on  their  return  to  my  house,  they  met  a  deputation 
of  the  Ohio  Indians,  who  told  the  Secretary  that  they  had 
heard  of  a  purchase  that  the  Governor  had  made  on  the 
East  side  of  Susquehannah,  and  said  they  were  intitled 
to  part  of  the  goods  paid  for  that  purchase,  but  had  re- 
ceived none,  that  they  were  come  now  to  desire  the 
Governor  to  purchase  no  more  lands  without  first  ac- 
quainting them,  for  that  the  lands  belonged  to  them  as 
well  as  to  the  Onondago  Council;  on  which  they  delivered 
a  Belt  of  Wampum,  and  desired  that  the  Governor  might 
send  that  Belt  to  Onondago  to  let  them  know  that  the 
Ohio  Indians  had  made  such  a  complaint. 

In  April  1751  the  Governor  sent  me  to  Ohio  with  a 
present  of  goods;  the  speeches  were  all  wrote  by  the 
Provincial  Interpreter  Mr  Wiser.  In  one  of  the  speeches 
was  warmly  expressed  that  the  Govr  of  Pennsylvania 
would  build  a  fort  on  the  Ohio,  to  protect  the  Indians, 
as  well  as  the  English  Traders,  from  the  insults  of  the 
French.  On  the  Governor  perusing  the  speech  he  thought 
it  too  strongly  expressed,  on  which  he  ordered  me  not 
to  make  it,  but  ordered  me  to  sound  the  Chief  of  the 
Indians  on  that  head,  to  know  whether  it  would  be  agree- 
able to  them  or  not.  Which  orders  I  obeyed,  and  did  in 
the  presence  of  M.r  Montour  sound  the  Half  King  Scarioa- 

51  For  a  copy  of  this  treaty  see  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  522- 
525.  In  regard  to  the  rejection  thereof,  note  that  the  governor  in  the  speech 
made  to  the  Twigtwees  says  it  is  approved.  See  ante. —  ED. 


1757]  Croghans  Journals  93 

day  and  the  Belt  of  Wampum,  who  all  told  me  that  the 
building  of  a  Trading  House  had  been  agreed  on  between 
them  and  the  Onondago  Council,  since  the  time  of  the 
detachment  of  French,  under  the  command  of  Monsr 
Celaroon,  had  gone  down  the  river  Ohio,  and  said  they 
would  send  a  message  by  me  to  their  Brother  Onas,  on 
that  head. 

After  I  had  delivered  the  present  and  done  the  chief 
of  the  business,  the  Indians  in  publick  Council,  by  a 
Belt  of  Wampum,  requested  that  the  Governor  of  Pennsyl- 
vania would  immediately  build  a  strong  house  (or  Fort) 
at  the  Forks  of  Monongehela,  where  the  Fort  Du  Quesne 
now  stands,  for  the  protection  of  themselves  and  the 
English  Traders. 

But  on  my  return  this  Government  rejected  the  pro- 
posal I  had  made,  and  condemned  me  for  making  such 
a  report  to  the  government,  alledging  it  was  not  the  inten- 
tion of  the  Indians.  The  Provincial  Interpreter,  who 
being  examined  by  the  House  of  Assembly,  denyed  that 
he  knew  of  any  instructions  I  had  to  treat  with  the  Indians 
for  building  a  Trading  House,  though  he  wrote  the  speech 
himself,  and  further  said  he  was  sure  the  Six  Nations 
would  never  agree  to  have  a  Trading  House  built  there, 
and  Governor  Hamilton,  though  he  by  his  letter  of  in- 
structions ordered  me  to  sound  the  Indians  on  that  head, 
let  the  House  know  he  had  given  me  no  such  instruc- 
tions: all  which  instructions  will  appear  on  the  Records 
of  Indian  Affairs.52 


62  The  records  appear  to  bear  out  Croghan's  contention  that  he  was  given 
instructions  to  discuss  the  erection  of  a  fort.  See  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records, 
v,  pp.  522,  529.  Historians  admit  that  this  neglect  of  the  Indians'  request  was 
attended  with  evil  consequences  to  the  English  colonies,  and  Pennsylvania 
in  particular.  Consult  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  537,  547,  for  the 
Indian  demand  and  the  Assembly's  refusal. —  ED. 


94  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

The  12th  June  1752,  the  Virginia  Commissioners  met 
the  Indians  at  the  Logs  Town  and  delivered  the  King's 
present  to  them.  The  Indians  then  renewed  their  request 
of  having  a  fort  built  as  the  government  of  Pennsylvania 
had  taken  no  notice  of  their  former  request  to  them,  and 
they  insisted  strongly  on  the  government  of  Virginia's 
building  one  in  the  same  place  that  they  had  requested 
the  Pennsylvanians  to  build  one;  but  to  no  effect.53 

In  the  year  1753  a  French  army  came  to  the  heads  of 
Ohio  and  built  fort  Preskle  on  the  Lake,  and  another 
fort  at  the  head  of  Venango  Creek,  called  by  the  French 
Le  Buff  Rivere.54  Early  in  the  fall  the  same  year  about 
one  hundred  Indians  from  the  Ohio  came  from  Winches- 
ter in  Virginia,  expecting  to  meet  the  Governor  there  who 
did  not  come,  but  ordered  Coll.  Fairfax  to  meet  them. 
Here  again  they  renewed  their  request  of  having  a  Fort 
built,  and  said  altho'  the  French  had  placed  themselves 
on  the  head  of  Ohio,  that  if  their  Brethren  the  English 
would  exert  themselves  and  sent  out  a  number  of  men, 
that  they  would  join  them,  &  drive  the  French  army 
away  or  die  in  the  attempt. 

From  Winchester  those  Indians  came  to  Cumberland 
County  where  they  were  met  by  Commissioners  from 
Governor  Hamilton,  and  promised  the  same  which  they 
had  done  in  Virginia;55  but  notwithstanding  the  earnest 
solicitations  of  those  Indians,  the  governments  neglected 
building  them  a  fort,  or  assisting  them  with  men;  believ- 

63  On  this  conference  at  Logstown  see  Dinwiddie  Papers,  i,  pp.  6,  7,  n,  22; 
Trent's  Journals,  pp.  69-81;  Gist's  Journals,  pp.  231-234. —  ED. 

64  For  the  French  sources  of  this  expedition  see  New  York  Colonial  Docu- 
ments, x,  pp.  255-257;  Pennsylvania  Archives  (26.  series),  vi,  pp.  161-164. —  ED. 

65  On  the  conferences  at  Winchester  and  Carlisle  (1753),  see  Pennsylvania 
Colonial  Records,  v,  pp.  657,  665-684. —  ED. 


1 7s;]  Croghans  Journals  95 

ing  or  seeming  to  believe  that  there  was  no  French  there; 
till  the  Governor  of  Virginia  sent  Col.  Washington  to  the 
heads  of  Venango  Creek,  where  he  met  the  French 
General  at  a  fort  he  had  lately  built  there. 

In  February  1754,  Captain  Trent  was  at  the  mouth 
of  Red  Stone  Creek,  building  a  Store  house  for  the  Ohio 
Company,  in  order  to  lodge  stores  to  be  carried  from 
there  to  the  mouth  of  Monongehela,  by  water,  where  he 
had  received  orders  in  conjunction  with  Cresap56  and 
Gist  to  build  a  fort  for  that  Company.  This  Creek  is 
about  37  miles  from  where  fort  Du  Quesne  now  stands. 

About  the  ioth  of  this  month  he  received  a  Commission 
from  the  Governor  of  Virginia  with  orders  to  raise  a 
Company  of  Militia,  and  that  he  would  soon  be  joined  by 
Col.  Washington.  At  this  time  the  Indians  appointed 
to  meet  him  at  the  mouth  of  Monongehela  in  order  to 
receive  a  present  which  he  had  brought  them  from  Vir- 
ginia. Between  this  time  and  that  appointed  to  meet  the 
Indians  he  raised  upwards  of  twenty  men  &  found  them 
with  arms  ammunition  &  provisions  at  his  own  expence. 
At  this  meeting  the  Indians  insisted  that  he  should  set 
his  men  at  work,  which  he  did,  and  finished  a  Store  House, 

56  Colonel  Thomas  Cresap  was  a  Yorkshireman  who  came  to  Maryland  at 
an  early  age.  Having  settled  within  the  territory  in  dispute  between  Maryland 
and  Pennsylvania,  he  became  an  aggressive  leader  of  the  forces  of  the  former 
and  was  arrested  by  the  Pennsylvania  sheriff  of  Lancaster,  where  he  spent 
several  months  in  jail.  Being  released  by  an  agreement  between  the  proprie- 
tors of  the  two  colonies  (1739),  he  moved  westward,  and  became  the  first  per- 
manent settler  of  Maryland  beyond  the  mountains,  taking  up  land  at  a  deserted 
Shawnee  village  now  called  Oldtown.  An  active  member  of  the  Ohio  Company, 
he  was  assisted  by  the  Indian  Nemacolin  in  blazing  the  first  path  west  to  the 
Ohio  (1752).  After  the  defeat  on  the  Monongahela,  Cresap  moved  back  to 
the  settlements  on  Conococheague  Creek;  but  on  the  return  of  peace  sought  his 
former  location,  where  he  became  a  noted  surveyor  and  frontiersman.  His 
son  Michael  was  likewise  a  well-known  borderer  and  Indian  fighter.  For  a 
complete  biographical  account,  see  Ohio  Archaeological  and  Historical  Publi- 
cations (Columbus,  1902),  x,  pp.  146-164. —  ED. 


96  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

and  a  large  quantity  of  timber  hew'd,  boards  saw'd,  and 
shingles  made.  After  finishing  his  business  with  the 
Indians  he  stayed  some  time  in  expectation  of  Col. 
Washington  joining  him,  as  several  accounts  came  of 
his  being  there  in  a  few  days.  As  there  was  no  more 
men  to  be  had  here  at  this  time,  there  being  no  inhabi- 
tants in  this  country  but  Indian  traders  who  were  scat- 
tered over  the  country  for  several  hundred  miles,  &  no 
provisions  but  a  little  Indian  corn  to  be  had,  he  applied 
tp  the  Indians,  who  had  given  him  reason  to  believe  they 
would  join  him  and  cut  off  the  French  on  the  Ohio, 
but  when  he  proposed  it  to  the  Half- King,  he  told  him 
that  had  the  Virginians  been  in  earnest  they  wou'd  have 
had  their  men  there  before  that  time,  and  desired  him 
to  get  the  rest  of  his  men  and  hurry  out  the  provisions. 
Agreeable  to  his  instructions  he  went  and  recruited  his 
company,  but  before  he  could  get  back,  it  being  no 
miles  from  here  to  the  nighest  inhabitants,  the  French 
came  and  drove  his  people  off. 

In  June  following  when  the  Indians  heard  that  Coll. 
Washington  with  a  Detachment  of  the  Virginia  troops 
had  reached  the  great  Meadows,  the  Half-King  and 
Scaruady  with  about  50  men  joined  him  —  notwithstand- 
ing the  French  were  in  possession  of  this  country  with 
six  or  seven  hundred  men;  so  great  was  their  regard  for 
the  English  at  that  time. 

After  the  defeat  of  Col.  Washington,  the  Indians  came 
to  Virginia,  where  they  stayed  some  time,  &  then  came 
to  my  house  in  Pennsylvania  and  put  themselves  under 
the  protection  of  this  Government. 

As  soon  as  possible  they  sent  messengers  to  call  down 
the  heads  of  the  Delawares  and  Shawnese  to  a  meeting 
at  my  house,  and  at  the  same  time  they  desired  the  Cover- 


1757]  Crogharis  journals  97 

nor  of  this  Province,  or  some  Deputy  from  him,  to  meet 
them  there  to  consult  what  was  best  to  be  done. 

The  Governor  sent  Mr  Wiser  the  Provincial  Interpre- 
ter; the  Chiefs  of  those  Indians  came  down  and  met  him 
and  offered  their  service,  but  it  was  not  accepted  by  Mr 
Wiser.  He  in  answer  told  them  to  sit  still,  till  Governor^ 
Morris  arrived,  and  then  he  himself  wou'd  come  and  let 
them  know  what  was  to  be  done.  They  waited  there  till 
very  late  in  the  fall,  but  received  no  answer,  so  set  off 
for  their  own  country.57 

This  Government  continued  to  maintain  the  Indians 
that  lived  at  my  house,  till  the  Spring,  when  General 
Bradock58  arrived;  they  then  desired  Governor  Morris 
to  let  me  know  they  would  not  maintain  them  any  longer; 
at  which  time  Governor  Morris  desired  me  to  take  them 
to  Fort  Cumberland  to  meet  General  Bradock;  which  I 
did; —  On  my  arrival  at  Fort  Cumberland  General  Brad- 
dock  asked  me  where  the  rest  of  the  Indians  were.  I 
told  him  I  did  not  know,  I  had  brought  but  fifty  men 
which  was  all  that  was  at  that  time  under  my  care,  and 
which  I  had  brought  there  by  the  directions  of  Governor 
Morris.  He  replied  that  Governor  Dinwiddie  told  me 
[him]  at  Alexandria  that  he  had  sent  for  400  which  would 
be  here  before  me.  I  answered  I  knew  nothing  of  that 
but  that  Captain  Montour  the  Virginia  Interpreter  was 
in  camp  &  could  inform  His  Excellency.  On  which 
Montour  was  sent  for  who  informed  the  General  that 
Mr  Gist's  son  was  sent  off  some  time  agoe  for  some 

87  The  official  report  of  these  affairs  is  in  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  vi, 
pp.  150-161,  180,  181,  186-191. —  ED. 

68  On  Croghan's  relations  to  Braddock's  expedition,  see  Pennsylvania 
Colonial  Records,  vi,  pp.  372,  381,  398;  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vi,  p. 
973.—  ED. 


98  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Cherokee  Indians,  but  whether  they  would  come  he 
could  not  tell.  On  which  the  General  asked  me  whether 
I  could  not  send  for  some  of  the  Delawares  and  Shawnese 
to  Ohio.  I  told  him  I  could ;  on  which  I  sent  a  messenger 
to  Ohio,  who  returned  in  eight  days  and  brought  with 
him  the  Chiefs  of  the  Delawares.  The  General  held 
a  conference  the  Chiefs  in  company  with  those  fifty  I  had 
brought  with  me,  and  made  them  a  handsome  present,  & 
behav'd  to  them  as  kindly  as  he  possibly  could,  during 
their  stay,  ordering  me  to  let  them  want  for  nothing. 

The  Delawares  promised,  in  Council,  to  meet  the 
General  on  the  road,  as  he  marched  out  with  a  number 
of  their  warriors.  But  whether  the  former  breaches  of 
faith  on  the  side  of  the  English  prevented  them,  or  that 
they  choose  to  see  the  event  of  the  action  between  General 
Braddock  and  the  French,  I  cannot  tell;  but  they  disap- 
pointed the  General  and  did  not  meet  him. 

Two  days  after  the  Delaware  Chiefs  had  left  the  camp 
at  Fort  Cumberland,  Mr  Gist's  son  returned  from  the 
Southward,  where  he  had  been  sent  by  Govr  Dinwiddie, 
but  brought  no  Indians  with  him. 

Soon  after,  the  General  was  preparing  for  the  march, 
with  no  more  Indians  than  I  had  with  me;  when  Coll. 
Innis59  told  the  General  that  the  women  and  children  of 
the  Indians  that  were  to  remain  at  Fort  Cumberland, 
would  be  very  troublesome,  and  that  the  General  need 

69  Colonel  James  Innes  was  an  elderly  Scotch  officer,  who  had  served  under 
the  king's  commission  in  the  West  Indies,  and  had  settled  in  North  Carolina. 
He  commanded  the  contingent  from  that  colony  that  came  to  the  assistance 
of  Virginia  in  1754.  On  the  death  of  Colonel  Joshua  Fry,  Dinwiddie  appointed 
Innes,  who  was  his  personal  friend,  to  the  position  of  commander-in-chief  of 
the  colonial  army,  of  which  Washington  was  acting  commandant.  Innes  got 
no  further  than  Fort  Cumberland,  where  he  remained  as  commander  of  the 
fort,  alternately  appealing  to  his  former  royal  commission,  and  to  his  colonial 
authorization,  for  authority  to  maintain  his  rank. —  ED. 


1757]  Crogharis  Journals  99 

not  take  above  eight  or  nine  men  out  with  him,  for  if  he 
took  more  he  would  find  them  very  troublesome  on  the 
march  and  of  no  service;  on  which  the  General  ordered 
me  to  send  back  all  the  men,  women  and  children,  to  my 
house  in  Pennsylvania,  except  eight  or  ten,  which  I  should 
keep  as  scouts  and  to  hunt;  which  I  accordingly  did. 

(Indorsed:     "Recd  with  Sr  W"  Johnson's  letter  of  the  25  June, 
I7S7-") 


CROGHAN'S  JOURNAL,  1760-61 60 

October  2ist  1760. —  In  pursuance  to  my  Instructions 
I  set  of[f]  from  Fort  Pitt  to  join  Major  Rogers61  at  Presqu' 
Isle62  in  order  to  proceed  with  the  Detachm*  of  his  Majes- 
tys  Troops  under  his  Command  to  take  possession  of 
Fort  D'Troit. 

25th. —  I  joined  Capt  Campbell  at  Venango  who  was 

60  The  years  between  the  last  document  (1757)  and  the  commencement  of  this 
journey  (October  21,  1760)  had  been  eventful  ones  for  the  future  of  American 
history.  The  French  and  Indian  War,  which  until  the  close  of  1757  had 
resulted  only  in  a  series  of  disasters  to  the  English,  was  pursued  with  greater 
vigor  when  a  change  of  administration  sent  able  officers  and  leaders  to  America. 
The  evacuation  of  Fort  Duquesne  (1758),  the  capture  of  Niagara  and  Quebec 
(1759),  and  the  final  capitulation  of  all  Canada  at  Montreal  (1760)  gave  the 
mastery  of  the  continent  to  the  English,  and  opened  the  portals  of  the  West. 
Croghan  was  occupied  during  these  momentous  years  with  Indian  negotiations 
of  great  importance.  As  deputy  of  Sir  William  Johnson,  he  endeavored  to 
hold  the  Six  Nations  firm  in  their  alliance,  to  pacify  the  frontier  tribes,  and 
finally  to  announce  to  the  expectant  savages  the  English  victory,  and  their 
transfer  to  British  authority.  In  1757,  he  was  employed  in  making  peace  with 
the  Susquehanna  Indians  (Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  vii,  pp.  51 7-55 1, 
656-714;  Pennsylvania  Archives,  iii,  pp.  248,  319;  New  York  Colonial  Docu- 
ments, vii,  pp.  321-324);  and  made  a  journey  to  Fort  Loudoun,  in  Tennessee 
to  sound  the  disposition  of  the  Cherokees  —  (Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records 
vii,  pp.  600,  630).  His  influence  was  relied  upon  to  pave  the  way  for  Forbes's 
army  (1758),  and  he  was  present  at  the  important  treaty  at  Easton,  in  October 
of  this  year  —  (Pennsylvania  Archives,  iii,  p.  429;  Pennsylvania  Colonial 
Records,  viii,  pp.  175-223;  Stone,  Life  of  Sir  William  Johnson,  ii,  p.  389). 
Croghan  also  accompanied  Forbes's  expedition,  and  assisted  in  pacifying  the 
Allegheny  Indians.  The  journal  in  Pennsylvania  Archives,  iii,  pp.  560-563, 
designated  as  Journal  of  Frederick  Post  from  Pittsburgh,  1758,  is  really  Croghan's 
journal,  as  a  comparison  with  Post's  journal  for  these  dates  will  reveal.  Early 
in  the  next  year  we  find  Croghan  at  Fort  Pitt,  holding  constant  conferences 
with  Western  Indians  (Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  viii,  pp.  387-391;  Penn- 
sylvania Archives,  iii,  pp.  671,  744),  where  he  remained  until  ordered  to  join 
the  expedition  sent  out  under  Major  Rogers  to  secure  possession  of  Detroit 
and  other  Western  posts,  included  in  the  capitulation  at  Montreal.  The  diary 
of  this  journty,  which  we  here  publish,  is  reprinted  from  Massachusetts  His- 
torical Collections,  4th  series,  ix,  pp.  362-379.  Other  letters  of  Croghan's  are 


1760-1761]  Crogharis  Journals  101 

on  his  march  to  Presqu'  Isle  with  a  Detachment  of  the 
Royal  Americans  to  join  Major  Rogers.83 

found  in  the  same  volume,  pp.  246-253,  260,  266,  283-289.  These  all  relate 
to  Indian  affairs,  and  the  information  being  brought  in  by  his  scouts  and  mes- 
sengers of  conditions  in  the  country  lying  westward  —  of  the  agitation,  alarm, 
and  confusion  among  the  Indian  hostiles,  who  were  eager  to  give  in  their 
allegiance  to  their  conquering  English  "brothers."  This  journal  of  the  voyage 
to  Detroit  admirably  supplements  that  of  Major  Robert  Rogers,  commandant 
of  the  party  which  Croghan  accompanied,  whose  account  has  been  the  standard 
authority.  It  was  published  in  Dublin,  1770,  and  several  reprints  have  been 
issued,  the  best  of  which  is  that  edited  by  Hough,  Rogers' s  Journals,  1755-1760 
(Albany,  1883).— ED. 

61  Major  Robert  Rogers,  the  noted  partisan  leader,  was  born  in  New  Hamp- 
shire. On  the  outbreak  of  the  French  and  Indian  War  he  raised  a  company 
of  scouts  known  as  " Rogers' s  Rangers,"  who  did  great  service  on  the  New 
York  frontier.  After  receiving  the  surrender  of  Detroit  and  attempting  in  vain 
to  reach  Mackinac,  he  was  again  sent  to  Detroit  to  relieve  the  garrison  in 
Pontiac's  War,  after  which  he  proceeded  against  the  Cherokees  in  the  South. 
About  this  time  he  was  retired  on  half  pay,  and  visited  England,  where  he 
published  his  journals,  and  a  Concise  Account  of  North  America.  In  1766,  he 
was  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  important  post  of  Mackinac,  and  there 
schemed  to  betray  the  fort  to  the  Spaniards.  The  plot  having  been  discovered, 
he  was  tried  in  Montreal,  but  secured  an  acquittal,  when  he  visited  England 
a  second  time,  only  to  be  thrown  into  prison  for  debt.  During  the  Revolution 
he  led  a  body  of  Loyalists,  and  having  been  banished  from  New  Hampshire 
retired  to  England  (1780),  where  he  died  about  1800. —  ED. 

82  Fort  Presqu'  Isle  was  built  by  the  French  expedition  under  Marin  in 
the  spring  of  1753,  on  the  site  of  the  present  city  of  Erie,  Pennsylvania.  It 
was  a  post  of  much  importance  in  maintaining  the  communication  between 
Niagara,  Detroit,  and  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio.  After  the  fall  of  Fort  Duquesne 
at  the  latter  site  (1758),  a  large  garrison  was  collected  at  Fort  Presqu'  Isle, 
and  a  movement  to  re-possess  the  Ohio  country  was  being  organized,  when 
the  capture  of  Niagara  (1759)  threw  the  project  into  confusion.  Johnson  sent 
out  a  party  to  relieve  the  French  officer  at  this  place,  and  a  detachment  of  the 
Royal  Americans  commanded  by  Colonel  Henry  Bouquet  advanced  from  Fort 
Pitt  and  took  possession  of  the  stronghold.  The  fort  was  captured  by  Indians 
during  Pontiac's  conspiracy  (June  17,  1763),  as  graphically  related  by  Park- 
man.  After  this  uprising,  a  British  detachment  controlled  the  place  until  the 
final  surrender  of  the  posts  to  the  United  States  in  1796.  Within  the  same 
year,  General  Anthony  Wayne,  returning  from  his  fruitful  campaign  against 
the  Indians,  died  in  the  old  blockhouse  of  the  fort.  Some  remains  of  the 
works  are  still  to  be  seen  at  Erie. —  ED. 

63  Captain  Donald  Campbell  was  a  Scotch  officer  who  came  to  America 
with  the  62nd  regiment  in  1756,  and  was  made  captain  of  the  Royal  Americans 


IO2  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

26th. —  I  halted  at  Venango  as  the  French  Creek  was 
very  high,  to  assist  in  getting  the  Pack  Horses  loaded 
with  Pitch  &  Blanketts  for  the  Kings  service  over.64 

27th. —  Left  Venango. 

3oth.—  Got  to  La'Bauf.65 

in.  1759.  After  accompanying  this  expedition  to  Detroit  (1760),  he  was  left 
in  command  of  that  post  (see  letter  from  Campbell,  Massachusetts  Historical 
Collections,  4th  series,  ix,  p.  382),  and  when  superseded  by  Major  Gladwin 
remained  as  lieutenant-commander.  Leaving  the  fort  on  an  embassy,  during 
the  Pontiac  uprising  (1763),  he  was  treacherously  seized,  made  captive,  and 
cruelly  murdered  by  the  Indian  hostiles.  See  Parkman,  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac 
(Boston,  1851),  chaps,  n  and  14. —  ED. 

64  Mann's  expedition  (1753),  that  erected  forts  Presqu'  Isle  and  Le  Boeuf, 
intended  to  plant  a  fort  at  Venango,  at  the  junction  of  French  Creek  with  the 
Allegheny;  the  first  detachment  sent  out  for  that  purpose  was,  however,  repulsed 
by  the  Indians.  When  Washington  visited  the  place  (December,  1753),  he 
found  the  French  flag  flying  over  the  house  of  an  English  trader,  Frazier,  who 
had  been  driven  from  the  spot.  The  following  year,  the  French  built  an  out- 
post on  this  site,  and  named  it  Fort  Machault.  When  Post  passed  by  here  in 
1758,  he  found  it  garrisoned  by  but  six  men  and  a  single  officer;  see  post. 
The  French  abandoned  Fort  Machault  in  1759,  and  early  the  following  spring 
the  English  built  Fort  Venango,  about  forty  rods  nearer  the  mouth  of  the  creek. 
At  the  outbreak  of  Pontiac's  War,  the  latter  fort  was  commanded  by  Lieu- 
tenant Gordon,  and  he  with  all  the  garrison  were  captured,  tortured,  and 
murdered  by  Indian  foes.  No  fort  was  rebuilt  at  this  place  until  late  in  the 
Revolution,  when  Fort  Franklin  was  erected  for  the  protection  of  the  border, 
being  garrisoned  from  1788-96.  The  present  town  of  Franklin  was  laid  out 
around  the  post  in  1795. —  ED. 

85  The  French  Fort  Le  Bceuf  (technically,  "Fort  de  la  Riviere  aux  Boeufs") 
was  built  by  Marin  (1753)  on  a  creek  of  the  same  name,  at  the  site  of  the  present 
town  of  Waterford,  the  terminus  of  the  road  which  Marin  caused  to  be  con- 
structed south  from  Presqu'  Isle.  This  was  the  destination  of  Washington's 
expedition  in  1753,  and  here  he  met  the  French  commandant,  Legardeur  de 
St.  Pierre.  The  fort  at  this  place  was  farmed  out  to  a  French  officer,  who 
superintended  the  portage  of  provisions  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Ohio.  Post 
found  it  garrisoned  by  about  thirty  soldiers  in  1758;  see  post.  The  following 
year,  after  the  French  had  abandoned  it,  a  detachment  of  the  Royal  Americans 
went  forward  from  Fort  Pitt  to  occupy  this  stronghold;  and  three  years  later 
Ensign  Price  was  beleaguered  therein  by  the  Indians,  and  barely  escaped  with 
his  life  after  a  brave  but  futile  defense.  The  Indians  destroyed  Fort  Le  Bceuf 
by  fire,  and  it  was  never  rebuilt.  In  1794,  another  fort  with  the  same  name 
was  erected  near  the  old  site,  and  garrisoned  until  after  the  War  of  1812-15. 
Subsequently  the  structure  was  used  as  a  hotel,  until  accidentally  burned  in 
1868.—  ED. 


1760-1761]  Crogharf  s  Journals  103 

3ist. —  Arrived  at  Presqu-Isle  where  I  delivered  Major 
Rogers  his  Orders  from  General  Monckton.66 

November  3d. —  Cap*  Brewer  of  the  Rangers  with  a 
Party  of  forty  Men  set  of[f ]  by  Land  with  the  Bullocks  with 
whom  I  sent  fifteen  Indians  of  different  Nations,  to  pilot 
them,  with  Orders  that  if  they  met  with  any  of  the  Indians 
of  the  Western  Nations  hunting  on  the  Lake  Side  to  tell 
them  to  come  and  meet  me.67  This  Evening  we  loaded 
our  Boats  &  lay  on  the  shore  that  night. 

4th. —  We  set  sail  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning  & 
at  three  in  the  afternoon  we  got  to  Siney  Sipey  or  Stoney 
Creek  about  ten  Leagues  from  Presqu'  Isle  where  we 
went  ashore  in  a  fine  Harbour  and  encamped.68 

66  General  Robert  Monckton,  a  son  of  the  Viscount  of  Galway,  began  his 
military  career  by  service  in  Flanders  (1742).     He  came  to  America  about  1750, 
and  was  stationed  at  Halifax,  being  appointed  governor  of  Nova  Scotia  (1754-56). 
After  being  transferred  to  the  Royal  Americans  (1757),  he  was  at  the  siege 
of  Louisburg  in  1758,  and  the  following  year  was  made  second  in  command 
for  the  capture  of  Quebec.     Promoted  for  gallant  services,  he  was  placed  in 
control  of  the  Western  department,  and  had  headquarters  at  Fort  Pitt,  where 
Rogers  had  been  detailed  to  seek  him  for  orders  with  reference  to  the  latter's 
Western  expedition.     General  Monckton  was  military  governor  of  New  York. 
City,  1761-63.     During  that  time  he  made  an  expedition  to  the  West  Indies, 
and  captured  Martinique.     Returning  to  England  he  was  made  governor  of 
Berwick  (1766),  and  later  of  Portsmouth,  which  he  represented  in  Parliament. 
He  refused  to  take  a  commission  to  serve  against  the  Americans  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary War. —  ED. 

67  Captain  David  Brewer  joined  Rogers's  Rangers  as  ensign  in  1756,  and 
three  years  later  was  promoted  for  gallant  services  on  Lake  Champlain.     He 
appears  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  trusted  officers  of  this  company.     Rogers 
left  him  to  bring  up  the  troops  to  Presqu'  Isle,  while  he  hastened  on  to  Fort 
Pitt,  at  the  beginning  of  the  expedition;  after  the  capitulation  of  Detroit,  he 
sent  the  larger  portion  of  the  Rangers  back  to  Niagara  under  Brewer's  com- 
mand.    See  Rogers's  Journal,  pp.  152, 198. —  ED. 

68  The  topography  of  this  voyage  is  a  disputed  question.     Croghan  is  the 
only  contemporary  authority  who  gives  details.     Siney  Sipey  is  probably  the 
present  Conneaut  Creek,  about  twenty  miles  from  Presqu'  Isle.     Rogers  says 
"by  night  we  had  advanced  twenty  miles."     "Sinissippi"  is  frequently  used 
for  Stoney  or  Rock  Creek;  the  present  Rock  River,  Illinois,  claims  that  for  its 
Indian  title.     In   1761,   Sir  William  Johnson  describes  this  place   (without 


104  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

5th. —  At  seven  o'Clock  in  the  Morning  we  set  sail, 
about  12  we  were  met  by  about  thirty  Ottawas  who  had 
an  English  Flag,  they  saluted  us  with  a  discharge  of  their 
fire  Arms,  we  then  put  ashore  shook  hands  and  smoked 
with  them  out  of  their  Council  Pipe,  we  drank  a  dram 
and  then  embarked,  about  two  o'Clock  arrived  at  Wajea 
Sipery  or  Crooked  Creek,  went  ashore  in  a  good  Harbour 
and  encamped,  this  day  went  about  seven  Leagues. 
After  we  had  encamped  I  called  a  meeting  of  all  the  Indians 
and  acquainted  them  of  the  Reduction  of  Montreal, 
and  agreeable  to  the  Capitulation  we  were  going  to  take 
possession  of  Fort  D'Troit,  Misselemakinack,  Fort  St 
Joseph's  &c.  and  carry  the  French  Garrisons  away 
Prisoners  of  War  &  Garrison  the  Forts  with  English 
Troops,  that  the  French  Inhabitants  were  to  remain  in 
possession  of  their  property  on  their  taking  the  Oath 
of  Fidelity  to  his  Majesty  King  George,  and  assured  them 
by  a  Belt  of  Wampum  that  all  Nations  of  Indians  should 
enjoy  a  free  Trade  with  their  Brethren  the  English  and  be 
protected  in  peaceable  possession  of  their  hunting  Country 
as  long  as  they  adhered  to  his  Majestys  Interest.  The 
Indians  in  several  Speeches  made  me,  expressed  their 
satisfaction  at  exchanging  their  Fathers  the  French  for 
their  Brethren  the  English  who  they  were  assured  were 
much  better  able  to  supply  them  with  all  necessaries, 
and  then  begged  that  we  might  forget  every  thing  that 
happened  since  the  commencement  of  the  War,  as  they 
were  obliged  to  serve  the  French  from  whom  they  got  all 
their  necessitys  supplyed,  that  it  was  necessity  and  not 
choice  that  made  them  take  part  with  the  French  which 

naming  it)  as  follows:  "Encamped  in  a  very  good  creek  and  safe  harbor. 
The  creek  about  fifty  yards  wide,  and  pretty  deep;  two  very  steep  hills  at  the 
entrance  thereof,  and  the  water  of  it  of  a  very  brown  color." —  ED. 


1760-1761]  Croghan's  Journals  105 

they  confirmed  by  several  Belts  and  Strings  of  Wampum. 
The  principal  Man  of  the  Ottawas  said  on  a  large  Belt 
that  he  had  not  long  to  live  &  said  pointing  to  two  Men 
"  those  Men  I  have  appointed  to  transact  the  Business 
of  my  Tribe,  with  them  you  confirmed  the  Peace  last 
year  when  you  came  up  to  Pittsburg,  I  now  recommend 
them  to  you,  and  I  beg  you  may  take  notice  of  them  and 
pity  our  women  and  Children  as  they  are  poor  and  naked, 
you  are  able  to  do  it  &  by  pitying  their  Necessitys  you 
will  win  their  Hearts."  The  Speaker  then  took  up  the 
Pipe  of  Peace  belonging  to  the  Nation  and  said  Brother 
to  Confirm  what  we  have  said  to  you  I  give  you  this 
Peace  Pipe  which  is  known  to  all  the  Nations  living  in 
this  Country  and  when  they  see  it  they  will  know  it  to  be 
the  Pipe  of  Peace  belonging  to  our  Nation,  then  [he] 
delivered  the  Pipe. 

The  principal  Man  then  requested  some  Powder  & 
Lead  for  their  young  Men  to  stay  there  and  hunt  for  the 
support  of  their  familys  as  the  Chiefs  had  agreed  to  go 
with  us  to  D'Troit,  and  a  little  Flower  which  I  applyed 
to  Major  Rogers  for  who  chearfully  ordered  it  to  me  as  I 
informed  him  it  was  necessary  &  would  be  for  the  good 
of  his  Majestys  Indian  Interest.69 

69  Rogers  in  his  Journal  places  this  meeting  with  the  Ottawas  on  the  seventh 
instead  of  the  fifth  of  November,  and  locates  it  at  "Chogage"  River  (formerly 
supposed  to  be  Cuyahoga,  but  now  thought  to  be  Grand  River).  Croghan's 
account  is  more  detailed,  and  probably  written  at  the  time;  while  Rogers's 
was  written  or  revised  later.  "Wajea  Sipery"  is  probably  Ashtabula  Creek, 
which  is  sufficiently  crooked  in  its  course  to  make  this  name  appropriate. 
This  is  the  traditional  meeting  for  the  first  time,  with  Pontiac,  the  Ottawa 
chief.  Parkman's  well-known  account  of  the  haughty  bearing  and  dignified 
demands  of  this  great  Indian  contrast  markedly  with  Croghan's  simpler  and 
more  literal  account.  In  truth,  it  may  be  doubted  whether  this  chief  was 
Pontiac  at  all,  as  he  here  speaks  of  himself  as  an  old  man.  Rogers's  Journal 
makes  no  mention  of  any  chief,  and  alludes  but  incidentally  to  meeting  the 
Ottawa  band;  but  in  his  Concise  Account  of  North  America)  published  in 


1 06  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

6th. —  At  seven  o'Clock  we  set  sail  in  Company  with 
the  Indians  arrived  at  a  pretty  large  Creek  called  Onchu- 
ago  or  fire  Creek70  about  twelve  Leagues  from  Crooked 
Creek,  where  we  went  ashore  and  incamped,  a  fine  Har- 
bour; here  we  met  seven  familys  of  Ottawa  Indians 
Hunting. 

7th.— We  loaded  our  Boats,  sent  of[f]  the  Battoes  with 
the  Provisions  and  some  Whale  Boats  to  attend  them, 
but  before  they  had  got  two  Miles  they  were  obliged 
to  return  the  Wind  springing  up  so  high  that  no  Boat 
could  live  on  the  Lake.  Continued  our  encampment 
here  the  whole  day. 

8th  9th  &  ioth.—  We  continued  here  the  Wind  so  high 
could  not  put  out  of  the  Harbour  here  the  Indians  gave 
us  great  quantitys  of  Bears  &  Elks  Meat,  very  fat. 

iith.— About  One  o'Clock  P.M.  set  sail,  a  great  swell 
in  the  Lake,  at  Eight  o'Clock  got  into  a  little  Cove  went 
ashore  &  encamped  on  a  fine  strand,  about  six  Leagues 


London  (1765),  when  the  exploits  of  Pontiac  were  causing  much  attention, 
Rogers  represents  himself  as  having  encountered  that  chief  on  his  way  to 
Detroit,  and  that  the  latter  asked  him  how  he  dared  to  enter  that  country  without 
his  (Pontiac's)  leave.  This  was  probably  a  flight  of  the  imagination,  conse- 
quent upon  his  representing  the  Indian  chief  as  the  hero  of  the  tragedy  in  the 
verses  he  was  then  preparing,  known  as  Ponteach,  or  the  Savages  of  America 
(London,  1766).  See  Parkman,  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac,  i,  p.  165,  ii,  appendix 
B.  The  plain,  unadorned  account  of  Croghan,  and  the  begging  attitude  of 
the  Ottawa  chief,  are  probably  more  in  accordance  with  historical  verity  than 
Parkman's  and  Rogers's  more  romantic  accounts. —  ED. 

70  The  creek  which  Croghan  calls  "Onchuago"  was  Grand  River,  whose 
Indian  name  was  "Chaeaga"  (Sheauga),  and  which  is  thus  designated  on 
Evans's  map  of  1755,  and  Hutchins's  map  of  1778.  Whittlesey,  Early  History 
of  Cleveland  (Cleveland,  1867),  thus  identifies  this  stream.  Baldwin,  in  his 
"Early  Maps  of  Ohio  and  the  West"  Western  Reserve  Historical  Society 
Tracts,  No.  25,  thinks  it  is  the  Conneaut  Creek;  but  that  would  be  too  far  east 
to  correspond  with  this  description,  and  the  present  Geauga  County  takes  its 
title  from  the  Indian  name  of  Grand  River. —  ED. 


1760-1761]  Grogharts  Journals  107 

from  fire  Creek,  where  Mr  Braam  with  his  party  had 
been  some  time  encamped.71 

i2th. —  At  half  an  hour  after  Eight  A.M.  set  sail,  very 
Calm,  about  10  came  on  a  great  squawl,  the  Waves  run 
Mountains  high,  about  half  an  hour  after  twelve  we  got 
into  Gichawaga  Creek  where  is  a  fine  Harbour,  some  of 
the  Battoes  were  forced  a  shore  on  the  Strand  and  re- 
ceived considerable  damage,  some  of  the  flower  wet  and 
the  Ammunition  Boat  allmost  staved  to  Pieces,  here  we 
found  several  Indians  of  the  Ottawa  Nation  hunting, 
who  received  us  very  kindly  they  being  old  Acquaintances 
of  mine,  here  we  overtook  Cap*  Brewer  of  the  Rangers 
with  his  party  who  set  of  by  Land  with  some  Cattle,  this 
day  came  about  four  Leagues.72 

13th. —  We  lay  by  to  mend  our  Boats. 

14th. —  The  Wind  blew  so  hard  we  could  not  set  of[f]. 
This  day  we  were  allarmed  by  one  of  the  Rangers  who 
reported  he  saw  about  Twenty  French  within  a  Mile  of 
our  encampment  on  which  I  sent  out  a  party  of  Indians 
and  Major  Rogers  a  party  of  Rangers,  both  partys 
returned  without  discovering  any  thing,  but  the 
Tracts  of  two  Indians  who  went  out  a  hunting  that 
Morning. 

i5th. —  Fine  Weather    we  set  sail  and  at  twelve  o' Clock 


71  Lieutenant  Dietrich  Brehm  (Braam)  was  a  German  engineer  who  came 
to  America  in  1756  with  the  32nd  regiment  (later  the  6oth  or  Royal  Americans). 
Little  is  known  of  his  military  career,  save  that  in  the  line  of  promotion  he 
was  captain  in  1774,  and  major  in  1783. —  ED. 

72  Probably  "Gichawaga"  was  Cuyahoga    River,  the  site  of  the  city  of 
Cleveland,  and  a  well-known  rendezvous  of  the  Ottawa  Indians,  who  had  a 
village  some  miles  up  its  banks.     Rogers  speaks  of  it  as  Elk  River,  which  by 
some  geographers  is  placed  east  of  Cuyahoga  River;  but  Rogers's  list  of  dis- 
tances, allowing  for  much  tacking,  would  indicate  that  the  expedition  had  by 
this  time  certainly  come  as  far  beyond  Grand  River  as  Cuyahoga. —  ED. 


io8  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

came  to  Sinquene  Thipe  or  Stony  Creek73  where  we  met 
a  Wayondott  Indian  named  Togasoady,  and  his  family 
a  hunting.  He  informed  me  he  was  fifteen  days  from 
D'Troit,  that  before  he  left  that  the  French  had  Accounts 
of  the  reduction  of  Montreal  &  that  they  expected  an 
English  Army  from  Niagara  to  D'Troit  every  day;  that 
M.  Balletre,74  would  not  believe  that  the  Governor  of 
Montreal  had  Capitulated  for  D'Troit;  that  he  had  no 
more  than  fifty  soldiers  in  the  Fort;  that  the  Inhabitants 
and  Indians  who  were  at  home  were  very  much  afraid 
of  being  plundered  by  our  Soldiers,  and  he  requested 
that  no  outrage  might  be  committed  by  our  soldiers  on 
the  Indian  settlements,  as  the  chief  of  the  Indians  were 
out  a  hunting.  I  assured  them  that  there  should  be  no 
plundering.  This  afternoon  we  came  to  Nechey  Thepy 
or  two  Creeks,75  about  Nine  Leagues  from  Gichawga, 

73  Stony  Creek  was  the  present  Rocky  River,  about  five  miles  west  of  Cleve- 
land.    Near  this  spot  a  part  of  Bradstreefs  fleet  was  wrecked  in  1764.     See 
Western  Reserve  Historical  Society  Tracts,  No.  13. —  ED. 

74  Marie  Francois  Picote,  Sieur  de  Bellestre,  was  born  in  1719,  and  when 
about  ten  years  of  age  emigrated  with  his  father  to  Detroit.     Entering  the 
army,  he  held  a  number  of   commands  —  in  Acadia  (1745-46),  and  at   the 
Western  posts,  especially  at  St.  Josephs,  where  he  had  much  influence  over  the 
Indians.     In  the  Huron  revolt  (1748),  his  bravery  was  especially  commended. 
During  the  French  and  Indian  War  he  led  his  Indian  allies  on  various  raids  — 
one  to  Carolina  in  1756,  where  he  received  a  slight  wound;  and  again  in  New 
York  against  the  German  Flats  (1757).     Bellestre  was  present  at  Niagara 
about  the  time  it  was  attacked;  but  Pouchot  detailed  him  to  retire  with  the 
detachments  from  forts  Presqu'  Isle  and  Machault  to  Detroit,  and  he  was 
commanding  at    this  post  when  summoned  to  surrender  to  Major  Rogers. 
After  the  capitulation  of  Detroit,  he  returned  to  Canada,  and  became  a  partisan 
of  the  British  power,  captured  St.  John,  and  defended  Chambly  against  the 
Americans  in  1775-76.     He  was  made  a  member  of  the  first  legislative  council 
of  the  province. —  ED. 

75  The  encampment  for  the  night  of  November  15  seems  to  have  been 
made  between  two  small  creeks  that  flow  into  the  lake  near  together,  in  Dover 
Township,  Cuyahoga  County. —  ED 


1760-1761]  Crogharis  Journals  109 

high  banks  all  the  way  &  most  part  of  it  a  perpendicular 
Rock  about  60  feet  high. 

i6th. —  a  storm  so  that  we  could  [not]  stir. 

1 7th. —  The  Wind  continued  very  high,  stayed  here 
this  day,  set  of[f]  the  Cattle  with  an  escort  of  Souldiers 
and  Indians. 

1 8th. —  Set  Sail  came  to  Oulame  Thepy  or  Vermillion 
Creek  a  narrow  Channel  about  Eight  foot  Water  a  large 
Harbour  when  in,  about  four  o' Clock  came  to  Notowacy 
Thepy  a  fine  Creek  running  through  a  Meadow  about 
Eighteen  foot  Water,  this  day  came  about  seven  Leagues;76 
here  I  met  three  Indians  who  informed  me  that  the 
Deputys  I  sent  from  Fort  Pitt  had  passed  by  their  hunting 
Cabin  Eight  days  agoe  on  their  way  to  D'Troit  in  order 
to  deliver  the  Messages  I  sent  by  them  to  the  several 
Indian  Nations. 

19th. —  Several  Indians  came  down  the  Creek  to  our 
encampment  and  made  us  a  present  of  dryed  Meat,  set 
of[f],  came  to  the  little  Lake  just  as  the  Cattle  set  over 
from  thence,  set  of[f]  from  here  came  to  a  Creek  which 
runs  through  a  marchy  Meadow,  here  we  encamped, 
came  this  day  about  six  Leagues.77 

20th.—  Mr.  Braam  set  of[f]  to  D'Troit  with  a  Flag  of 
Truce  and  took  with  him  Mr  Gamblin  a  French  Gen- 
tleman an  Inhabitant  of  D'Troit.78  This  day  about  One 

76  Vermillion  Creek  or  River  retains  its  name.     The  river  where  the  expedi- 
tion encamped  ("Notowacy  Thepy")  was  probably  that  now  known  as  the 
Huron  River,  in  Erie  County,  Ohio.     Rogers' s  Journal  mentions  these  rivers 
without  giving  names. —  ED. 

77  Rogers  names  the  lake  here  mentioned,  as  Sandusky.     It  is  difficult  to 
tell  from  this  description  whether  or  not  the  flotilla  entered  the  inner  Sandusky 
Bay.     Probably  the  encampment  for  the  nineteenth  was  on  the  site  of  the 
present  city  of  Sandusky,  at  Mill  or  Pipe  Creek. —  ED. 

78  Medard  Gamelin  was  the  son  of  a  French  surgeon;  and  nephew  of  that 
Sieur  de  la  Jemerais  who  accompanied  La  Verendrye  on  his  Western  explora- 


1 1  o  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

o'Clock  we  met  a  Canoe  of  Wayandott  Indians  who 
informed  us  that  the  Deputy s  I  sent  to  ye  several  Nations 
living  about  Fort  D'Troit,  from  Fort  Pitt  had  got  there 
and  collected  the  principal  Men  of  the  several  Nations 
together  and  delivered  their  Messages  which  were  well 
received  by  the  Indians,  and  that  a  Deputation  of  the 
Indians  were  appointed  to  come  with  my  Deputys  to 
meet  us  at  that  place  which  was  the  Carrying  place  from 
Sandusky  into  the  Lake,  we  put  into  the  Creek  called 
Crambary  Creek,  went  a  shore  &  encamped  to  wait  the 
arrival  of  those  Deputys;  we  sent  over  the  Carrying  place 
to  two  Indian  Villages  which  are  within  two  Miles  of 
each  other  to  invite  the  Indians  to  come  &  meet  the 
Deputys  at  our  Camp.79  This  day  came  four  Leagues. 

2ist. —  Towards  Evening  some  of  the  Indians  from 
the  two  Villages  came  to  our  Camp;  just  after  dark  a 
Canoe  came  in  sight  who  immediately  saluted  us  with 
three  discharges  of  their  fire  Arms,  which  was  returned 
from  our  Camp,  on  their  arrival  we  found  them  to  be 
the  Deputys  sent  from  the  Nations  living  about  D'Troit 
with  the  Deputys  I  had  sent  from  Fort  Pitt,  as  soon  as 
they  landed  the  Deputys  I  had  sent  introduced  them  to 
Majr  Rogers,  Cap*  Campbell  and  myself  &  said  they 
had  delivered  their  Messages  [to]  the  several  Nations 

tions,  and  died  (1735)  in  the  wilderness  west  of  Lake  Superior.  Gamelin  was 
born  two  years  before  this  event.  Emigrating  to  Detroit,  he  employed  himself 
in  raising  and  training  a  militia  company  composed  of  the  habitants,  which  he 
led  to  the  relief  of  Niagara  (1759).  There  he  was  captured  and  kept  a  prisoner 
until  released  by  the  orders  of  General  Amherst  in  order  to  accompany  Rogers's 
expedition,  and  pacify  the  settlers  at  Detroit.  He  took  the  oath  of  allegiance 
and  remained  in  that  city  after  its  capitulation  to  the  British,  dying  there  about 
1778.—  ED. 

79  The  present  Cranberry  Creek  is  east  of  Sandusky.  The  creek  which 
Croghan  mentions  was  some  small  tributary  of  Portage  River  (the  Carrying- 
place),  or  directly  beyond  it.  Rogers  says  they  went  "to  the  mouth  of  a  river 
in  breadth  300  feet,"  which  is  evidently  Portage  River. —  ED. 


1760-1761]  Croghan's  Journals  1 1 1 

and  that  the  Indians  which  came  with  them  were  come 
to  return  Answers  which  we  should  hear  in  the  Morn- 
ing &  they  hoped  their  answers  would  be  to  our  expec- 
tations after  drinking  a  dram  round  we  dismissed  them 
&  gave  them  Provisions. 

22d. —  About  9  o'Clock  the  Indians  met  in  Council, 
though  several  of  their  People  were  in  Liquor,  &  made 
several  speeches  on  strings  and  one  Belt  of  Wampum  all 
to  the  following  purport. 

BRETHREN:  We  your  Brethren  of  the  several  Nations 
living  in  this  Country  received  your  Messages  well  and 
return  you  thanks  for  sending  us  word  of  what  has  hap- 
pened and  your  coming  to  remove  the  French  Garrison 
out  of  our  Country  and  putting  one  there  of  our  Brethren 
the  English;  your  Conduct  in  sending  us  timely  notice 
of  it  is  a  Confirmation  of  your  sincerity  &  upright  inten- 
tions towards  us  and  we  are  sent  here  to  meet  you  &  bid 
you  welcome  to  our  Country. 

Brethren  all  our  principal  Men  are  met  on  this  side 
the  French  Garrison  to  shake  hands  with  you  in  Friend- 
ship &  have  determined  in  Council  to  abandon  the 
French  Interest  and  receive  our  Brethren  the  English  as 
our  true  Friends  &  establish  a  lasting  Peace  with  you  & 
we  expect  you  will  support  us  and  supply  us  with  a  fire  & 
open  Trade  for  the  Cloathing  of  our  Women  and  Chil- 
dren. Then  they  delivered  two  strings  of  Wampum  to 
the  Six  Nations  and  Delawares  returning  them  thanks  for 
sending  Messages  to  them  with  the  Deputys  I  had  sent 
&  desired  those  strings  might  be  delivered  to  them  in 
Council.  Then  the  Speaker  spoke  on  a  Belt  &  said 
Brethren  the  Chief  of  our  young  People  are  gone  out  a 
hunting  and  our  Women  have  put  up  their  Effects  & 
Corn  for  the  maintainance  of  their  Children  in  the  Houses 


1 1 2  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

about  the  French  Fort  and  we  know  that  all  Warriors 
plunder  when  they  go  on  those  Occasions,  we  desire  by 
this  Belt  that  you  will  give  orders  that  none  of  our  Houses 
may  be  plundered  as  we  are  a  poor  People  and  cannot 
supply  our  Losses  of  that  kind.  Then  I  acquainted 
them  of  the  Reduction  of  all  Canada  and  the  terms  of  the 
Capitulation  &  when  I  met  their  Chiefs  I  would  tell 
them  on  what  terms  the  Peace  was  confirmed  between 
all  Nations  of  Indians  and  us.  Then  Major  Rogers  gave 
them  a  string  by  which  he  took  all  the  Indians  present  by 
the  hand  &  lead  them  to  D'Troit  where  he  would  have 
a  Conference  with  them  and  deliver  them  some  speeches 
sent  by  him  to  them  from  General  Amherst.80  At  10 
o'Clock  we  embarked  sailed  about  five  Leagues  and  en- 
camp"1 on  a  Beach. 

23d. —  We  embarked  sailed  about  three  Leagues  and 
an  half  to  Ceeder  point  where  is  a  large  Bay,  here  was 
a  large  encampment  of  Indians  Wayondotts  and  Ottawas 
who  insisted  on  our  staying  there  that  day  as  it  was  raining 
and  a  large  Bay  to  cross  which  Major  Rogers  agreed  to.81 

80  Rogers's  Journal  (p.  191),  gives  his  own  speech.     He  indicates  in  his 
account  that  the  Indians  were  preparing  to  resist  the  English  advance;  but 
Croghan  does  not  mention  any  such  suspicions. 

General  Jeffrey  Amherst  was  an  English  soldier  of  much  distinction,  who 
after  serving  a  campaign  in  Flanders  and  Germany,  was  commissioned  by 
Pitt  to  take  charge  of  the  military  operations  in  America  (1758).  His  first 
success  was  the  capture  of  Louisburg,  followed  by  the  campaign  of  1759,  when 
he  reduced  Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point,  and  moved  upon  Montreal,  which 
capitulated  the  following  year.  He  was  immediately  made  governor-general 
of  the  British  in  North  America,  received  the  thanks  of  Parliament,  and  was 
presented  with  the  order  of  the  Bath.  It  was  in  obedience  to  his  orders  that 
Rogers  undertook  this  westward  expedition.  Amherst's  later  career  was  a 
succession  of  honors,  emoluments,  and  high  appointments  in  the  British  army. 
He  opposed  the  cause  of  the  colonies  during  the  American  Revolution.  Late 
in  life  he  was  field-marshal  of  the  British  army,  dying  (1797)  at  his  estate  in 
Kent,  as  Baron  Amherst  of  Montreal. —  ED. 

81  Cedar  Point  is  at  the  southeastern  entrance  of  Maumee  Bay.     Rogers's 
Journal  for  November  23  says  that  an  Ottawa  sachem  came  into  their  camp; 
possibly  this  was  Pontiac. —  ED. 


1760-1761]  Croghari  s  Journals  113 

24th.— We  set  of[f]  at  Eight  o'Clock  across  the  Bay 
in  which  is  an  Island  the  day  was  so  foggy  that  the  Drum 
was  obliged  to  beat  all  day  to  keep  the  Boats  together,  this 
day  we  went  about  Eight  Leagues.  Where  we  encamped 
there  came  to  us  five  Indian  familys. 

25th. —  The  Indians  desired  Major  Rogers  would  order 
the  Boats  into  a  Cove  as  it  was  likely  to  be  bad  Weather  & 
lay  by  that  day  &  they  would  send  some  men  to  where 
their  Chiefs  were  collected  to  hear  News  which  was 
agreed  to.82 

26th. —  The  Wind  blew  so  hard  that  we  could  not  put 
out  of  the  Cove,  the  Messengers  the  Indians  sent  returned 
and  informed  us  that  the  French  were  very  angry  with 
the  Indian  Nations  for  meeting  us  and  threatned  to 
burn  their  Towns;  that  the  Commanding  Officer  would 
not  let  us  come  to  D'Troit  till  he  received  his  Orders 
from  the  Governor  of  Canada  and  the  Capitulation  to 
which  we  answered  the  Indians  that  they  might  depend 
on  it,  that  if  any  damage  was  done  them  by  the  French 
that  we  would  see  the  damage  repaired. 

27th. —  In  the  Morning  a  Cannoe  with  two  Interpreters 
and  four  French  came  to  our  Camp  with  Letters  from 
Monsieur  Balletre.  We  decamped  and  came  into  the 
mouth  of  the  River  where  we  met  the  Chief  of  the  Wayon- 
dotts,  Ottawas  &  Putawatimes  who  bid  us  welcome  to 
their  Country  and  joined  us,  we  went  up  the  River  about 
6  miles  where  we  met  a  French  Officer  who  hoisted  a  Flag 
of  Truce  and  beat  a  parley  here  we  encamped  on  an 
Island  and  sent  for  the  French  Officer  who  delivered  his 
Messages. 

82  From  the  distances  given  in  Rogers' s  Journal  it  would  appear  that 
the  expedition  encamped  the  twenty-fifth  and  twenty-sixth  in  the  entrance 
of  Swan  Creek,  Monroe  County,  Michigan,  a  short  distance  north  of  Stony 
Point.—  ED. 


1 1 4  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

28th. —  Capt.  Campbell  was  sent  of[f]  with  a  Flag  of 
Truce  to  give  M.  Balletre  his  orders  to  give  up  the  Place 
soon  after  we  set  of[f]  up  the  River  and  encamped  at  an 
Indian  Village,  at  Night  Capt.  Campbell  joined  us  and 
informed  us  that  Monsieur  Balletre  behaved  very  politely 
on  seeing  M.  Vaudreuils83  Orders  &  desired  we  would 
proceed  the  next  day  and  take  possession  of  the  Fort  & 
Country. 

29th. —  We  set  of[f]  and  arrived  about  twelve  o' Clock 
at  the  place  where  we  landed  and  sent  and  relieved  the 
Garrison. 

30th. —  Part  of  the  Militia  lay  down  their  Arms  and 
took  the  Oath  of  Fidelity.  * 

December  ist. —  The  rest  of  the  Militia  layed  down 
their  Arms  and  took  the  Oath  of  Fidelity. 

2d. —  Lieu*  Holms  was  sent  of[f]  with  M.  Balletre  and 
the  French  Garrison  with  whom  I  sent  15  English  Prison- 
ers which  I  got  from  the  Indians. 

3d. —  In  the  Morning  the  principal  Indians  of  3  different 
Nations  came  to  my  Lodgings  &  made  the  following 
Speech  on  a  Belt  of  Wampum. 

BRETHREN: — You  have  now  taken  possession  of  this 
Country,  While  the  French  lived  here  they  kept  a  smith 
to  mend  our  Guns  and  Hatchets  and  a  Doctor  to  attend 

83  Pierre  Fran$ois  Rigault,  Chevalier  de  Cavagnal,  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil, 
was  Canadian  born,  and  entered  the  military  service  at  an  early  age.  In  1728 
he  was  in  the  present  Wisconsin  on  an  expedition  against  the  Fox  Indians; 
some  years  later,  he  was  governor  at  Trois  Rivieres,  and  in  1743  was  sent  to 
command  in  Louisiana,  where  he  remained  nine  years,  until  appointed  governor 
of  New  France,  just  before  the  outbreak  of  the  French  and  Indian  War.  As 
the  last  French  governor  of  Canada,  his  term  of  service  was  embittered  by 
quarrels  with  the  French  generals,  and  disasters  to  French  arms.  After  his 
capitulation  at  Montreal;  he  went  to  France,  only  to  be  arrested,  thrown  into 
the  Bastile,  and  tried  for  malfeasance  in  office.  He  succeeded  in  securing  an 
acquittal  (1763);  but,  broken  by  disappointments  and  enmities,  died  the  follow- 
ing year. —  ED. 


1760-1761]  Croghan's  Journals  1 1 5 

our  People  when  sick,  we  expect  you  will  do  the  same 
and  as  no  doubt  you  have  something  to  say  to  us  from 
the  English  General  and  Sir  William  Johnson  we  would 
be  glad  [to  know]  how  soon  you  would  go  on  business  as 
this  is  our  hunting  season. 

Fort  D'Troit  December  4th  1760.  We  met  the  Wayon- 
dotts,  Putawatimes  and  Ottawas84  in  the  Council  House, 
with  several  of  the  principal  Men  of  the  Ohio  Indians 
who  accompanied  his  Majestys  Forces  there  when  the 
following  speeches  were  made  to  them. 

BRETHREN  CHIEFS  &  WARRIORS  OF  THE  SEVERAL 
NATIONS  NOW  PRESENT:  You  have  been  made  acquaint- 
ed with  the  success  of  his  Majestys  Arms  under  the  Com- 
mand of  his  Excellency  General  Amherst  and  the  Reduc- 
tion of  all  Canada  &  now  you  are  Eye  Witnesses  to  the 
surrender  of  this  place  agreeable  to  the  Capitulation  as  I 
sent  you  word  before  the  arrival  of  his  Majestys  Troops; 
you  see  now  your  Fathers  are  become  British  Subjects, 
you  are  therefore  desired  to  look  on  them  as  such  &  not 
to  think  them  a  separate  People;  and  as  long  as  you  ad- 
here to  his  Majestys  ^Interest  and  behave  yoursel[ves] 
well  to  all  his  subjects  as  faithfull  allies,  you  may  depend 
on  having  a  free  open  Trade  with  your  Brethren  the 
English  &  be  protected  by  his  Majesty  King  George  now 
your  Father  &  my  Master. —  A  Belt. 

BRETHREN  :  At  a  Conference  held  with  several  Chiefs  & 
Deputys  of  your  several  Nations  at  Pittsburg  this  Slim- 
mer, you  told  me  that  all  our  Prisoners  which  have  been 
taken  since  the  War,  yet  remaining  in  your  possession 

84  The  Potawotami  Indians  are  an  Algonquian  tribe,  being  fir*  encountered 
by  French  explorers  on  the  borders  of  Green  Bay;  but  later,  they  had  villages 
at  Detroit,  St.  Josephs  River  (southeast  Michigan),  and  Milwaukee.  They 
were  devoted  to  the  French  interests,  and  easily  attracted  to  the  vicinity  of 
the  French  posts.  For  the  Wyandots  (Hurons)  and  Ottawas,  see  ante. —  ED. 


1 1 6  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

were  then  set  at  Liberty  to  return  home  if  they  pleased, 
now  I  have  received  by  Major  Rogers  the  Commanding 
Officer  here,  General  Amherst  and  Sir  William  Johnson's 
Orders  to  demand  due  performance  of  your  promise  & 
desire  that  you  may  forthwith  deliver  them  up  as  that  is 
the  only  way  you  can  convince  us  of  your  sincerity  and 
future  intentions  of  living  in  Friendship  with  all  his 
Majestys  Subjects  in  the  several  British  Colonies  in 
America. —  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  On  Condition  of  your  performance  of 
what  has  been  said  to  you  I  by  this  Belt  renew  and 
brighten  the  Ancient  Chain  of  Friendship  between  his 
Majestys  Subjects,  the  Six  United  Nations  and  our 
Brethren  of  the  several  Western  Nations  to  the  Sun  set- 
ting and  wish  it  may  continue  as  long  as  the  Sun  and 
Moon  give  light. —  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  As  my  orders  are  to  return  to  Pittsburg 
I  now  recommend  Capt.  Campbel  to  you  as  he  is  appointed 
by  his  Majestys  Commander  in  Chief  to  be  Governour 
of  this  place,  with  him  you  must  transact  the  publick 
business  and  you  may  depend  he  will  do  you  all  the  ser- 
vice in  his  power  and  see  that  justice  is  done  you  in 
Trade.— A  belt. 

BRETHREN  CHIEFS  AND  WARRIORS:  As  the  Ancient 
Friendship  that  long  subsisted  between  our  Ancestors 
is  now  renewed  I  was[h]  the  Blood  of[f]  the  Earth,  that 
has  been  shed  since  the  present  War,  that  you  may  smell 
the  sweet  scent  of  the  Springing  Herbs  &  bury  the  War 
Hatchet  in  the  Bottomless  Pitt.— A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  I  know  your  Warriors  have  all  a  martial 
spirit  &  must  be  employed  at  War  &  if  they  want  diver- 
sion after  the  fatigue  of  hunting  there  is  your  natural 
Enemies  the  Cherookees  with  whom  you  have  been  long 


1760-1761]  Croghan's  Journals  117 

at  War,  there  your  Warriors  will  find  diversion  &  there 
they  may  go,  they  have  no  other  place  to  go,  as  all  Nations 
else  are  become  the  subjects  of  Great  Britain. —  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  As  I  command  this  Garrison  for  his 
Majesty  King  George  I  must  acquaint  you  that  all  the 
Settlers  living  in  this  Country  are  my  Master's  subjects 
therefore  I  take  this  opportunity  to  desire  you  our  Brethren 
of  the  several  Nations  not  to  take  any  of  their  Effects  from 
them  by  force,  nor  kill  or  steal  any  of  their  Cattle,  as  I 
shall  look  on  any  insult  of  that  kind  as  if 'done  to  me,  as 
they  are  under  my  protection.  I  desire  you  will  encourage 
your  young  Men  to  hunt  and  bring  their  Meat  to  me  for 
which  they  shall  be  paid  in  Powder  and  Lead. — A  belt. 

Major  Rogers  acquainted  the  Indians  that  he  was  going 
to  Misselemaknach  to  relieve  that  Garrison  and  desired 
some  of  their  young  Men  to  go  with  him,  whom  he  would 
pay  for  their  Services  and  that  he  was  sending  an  Officer 
to  S**  Josephs  and  the  Waweoughtannes85  to  relieve  their 
Post  &  bring  of[f]  the  French  Garrisons  &  desired  they 

85  The  French  fort  of  St.  Josephs  was  established  early  in  the  eighteenth 
century,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  river  of  that  name,  about  a  mile  from  the 
present  city  of  Niles,  Michigan.  Its  commandant  was  the  "farmer"  of  the 
post  —  that  is,  he  was  entitled  to  what  profits  he  could  win  from  the  Indian 
trade,  and  paid  his  own  expenses.  After  the  British  took  possession  of  this 
fort,  it  was  garrisoned  by  a  small  detachment  of  the  Royal  Americans.  When 
Pontiac's  War  broke  out,  but  fourteen  soldiers  were  at  the  place,  with  Ensign 
Schlosser  in  command.  The  fort  was  captured  and  eleven  of  the  garrison 
killed,  the  rest  being  carried  prisoners  to  Detroit.  During  the  Revolution, 
Fort  St.  Josephs  was  three  times  taken  from  the  British  —  twice  by  parties 
from  the  Illinois  led  by  French  traders  (in  1777,  and  again  in  1778);  and  in 
1781,  a  Spanish  expedition  set  out  from  St.  Louis  to  capture  the  stronghold, 
and  take  possession  of  this  region  for  Spain.  See  Mason,  Chapters  from 
Illinois  History  (Chicago,  1901).  The  United  States  failed  to  garrison  St. 
Josephs  when  the  British  forts  were  surrendered  in  1796,  and  built  instead 
(1804)  Fort  Dearborn  at  Chicago. 

Ouiatonon  (Waweoughtannes)  was  situated  at  the  head  of  navigation  on 
the  Wabash  River,  not  far  from  the  present  city  of  Lafayette,  Indiana.  The 
French  founded  this  post  about  1719,  among  a  tribe  of  the  same  name  (called 


1 1 8  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

would  send  some  of  their  young  Men  with  him  who 
should  likewise  be  paid  for  their  services. —  A  belt. 

Then  we  acquainted  them  by  a  string  that  as  they  had 
requested  a  Smith  to  mend  their  Guns  as  usual  &  the 
Doctor  to  attend  their  sick  that  it  was  granted  till  the 
Generals  pleasure  was  known. —  A  string. 

December  the  4th. —  A  Principal  Man  of  the  Wayon- 
dotts  spoke  and  said  Brethren  we  have  heard  and  con- 
sidered what  you  said  to  us  yesterday  and  are  met  this 
day  to  return  you  an  answer  agreeable  to  our  promise. 

The  Wayondott  Speaker  addressed  his  speech  to 
Major  Rogers,  Capt  Campbel  and  myself. 

BRETHREN:  We  have  heard  what  you  said  to  us 
yesterday,  we  are  like  a  lost  People,  as  we  have  lost  many 
of  our  principal  Men,  &  we  hope  you  will  excuse  us  if 
we  should  make  any  Mistakes,  but  we  assure  you  our 
Hearts  are  good  towards  our  Brethren  the  English  when 
your  General  and  Sir  William  Johnson  took  all  Canada 
they  ordered  you  to  send  us  Word,  we  received  your 
Messages  &  we  see,  by  your  removing  the  French  in  the 
manner  you  have  from  here,  that  what  you  said  to  us  by 
your  Messengers  is  true.  Brethren  be  it  so,  and  continue 
as  you  have  begun  for  the  good  of  us  all.  All  the  Indians 
in  this  Country  are  Allies  to  each  other  and  as  one  People, 
what  you  have  said  to  us  is  very  agreeable  &  we  hope 
you  will  continue  to  strengthen  the  Ancient  Chain  of 
Friendship. — A  belt. 

Weas  by  the  English);  and  kept  an  officer  stationed  there  until  its  surrender 
to  the  English  party  sent  out  by  Rogers  (1761).  The  small  garrison  under 
command  of  Lieutenant  Jenkins  was  captured  at  the  outbreak  of  Pontiac's 
conspiracy;  but  through  the  intervention  of  French  traders  their  lives  were 
spared,  while  the  fort  was  destroyed  by  burning,  and  never  rebuilt.  See  Craig, 
"Ouiatonon,"  Indiana  Historical  Society  Collections  (Indianapolis,  1886), 
v,  ii.  See  also  Croghan's  description  when  he  passed  here  five  years  later, 
post.—  ED. 


1760-1761]  Crogharfs  Journals  119 

You  desired  us  yesterday  to  perform  our  promise  & 
deliver  up  your  Prisoners,  it  is  very  true  we  did  promise 
to  deliver  them  up,  and  have  since  delivered  up  many, 
what  would  you  have  us  do  there  is  very  few  here  at 
present  they  are  all  yours  &  you  shall  have  them  as  soon 
as  possible  tho'  we  do  not  choose  to  force  them  that  have 
a  mind  to  live  with  us. —  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  Yesterday  you  renewed  and  brightened 
the  Ancient  Chain  of  Friendship  between  our  Ancestors 
the  Six  Nations  &  you.  Brethren  I  am  glad  to  hear  that 
you  our  Brethren  the  English  and  the  Six  Nations  have 
renewed  and  strengthened  the  Ancient  Chain  of  Friend- 
ship subsisting  between  us,  &  we  assure  you  that  if  ever 
it  be  broke  it  will  be  on  your  side,  and  it  is  in  your  power 
as  you  are  an  able  People  to  preserve  it,  for  while  this 
Friendship  is  preserved  we  shall  be  a  strong  Body  of 
People,  and  do  not  let  a  small  matter  make  a  difference 
between  us. —  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  Yesterday  you  desired  us  to  be  strong 
and  preserve  the  Chain  of  Friendship  free  from  rust, 
Brethren  look  on  this  Friendship  Belt  where  we  have  the 
Six  Nations  and  you  by  the  hand ;  this  Belt  was  delivered 
us  by  our  Brethren  the  English  &  Six  Nations  when  first 
you  came  over  the  great  Water,  that  we  might  go  & 
pass  to  Trade  where  we  pleased  &  you  likewise  with  us, 
this  Belt  we  preserve  that  our  Children  unborn  may 
know. 

BRETHREN:  We  heard  what  you  said  yesterday  it 
was  all  good  but  we  expected  two  things  more,  first  that 
you  would  have  put  it  out  of  the  power  of  the  Evil  Spirit 
to  hurt  the  Chain  of  Friendship,  and  secondly  that  you 
would  have  settled  the  prices  of  goods  that  we  might 
have  them  cheaper  from  you  than  we  had  from  the 


1 20  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

French  as  you  have  often  told  us.  Brethren  you  have 
renewed  the  Old  Friendship  yesterday,  the  Ancient 
Chain  is  now  become  bright,  it  is  new  to  our  young  Men, 
and  Brethren  we  now  take  a  faster  hold  of  it  than  ever 
we  had  &  hope  it  may  be  preserved  free  from  rust  to  our 
posterity. —  A  belt  [of]  9  rows. 

BRETHREN:  This  Belt  is  from  our  Warriors  in  behalf 
of  our  Women  &  Children  and  they  desire  of  us  to  request 
of  you  to  be  strong  &  see  that  they  have  goods  cheap 
from  your  Traders  &  not  be  oppressed  as  they  have  been 
by  the  French.86 —  A  belt  [of]  7  rows. 

BRETHREN: — Shewing  two  Medals  those  we  had  from 
you  as  a  token  that  we  might  remember  our  Friendship 
whenever  we  should  meet  in  the  Woods  and  smoke  under 
the  Tree  of  Peace,  we  preserved  your  token  and  hope 
you  remember  your  promise,  it  was  then  said  that  this 
Country  was  given  by  God  to  the  Indians  &  that  you 
would  preserve  it  for  our  joint  use  where  we  first  met 
under  a  shade  as  there  were  no  Houses  in  those  times. 

The  same  speaker  addressing  himself  to  the  six  Na- 
tions. 

BRETHREN:  I  am  very  glad  to  hear  what  our  Brethren 
the  English  have  said  to  us,  and  I  now  send  this  string  by 
you,  and  take  the  Chiefs  of  the  six  Nations  by  the  hand 
to  come  here  to  Council  next  spring. 

Brother  addressing  himself  to  me 

You  have  been  employed  by  the  King  and  Sir  William 
Johnson  amongst  many  Nations  of  Indians  in  settling 
this  Peace,  now  you  are  sent  here  where  our  Council  fire  is, 

88  The  speculation  and  corruption  of  the  French  officers  at  the  Western 
posts,  was  notorious.  Bellestre  was  not  free  from  suspicions  of  taking  advan- 
tage of  his  official  position  to  exploit  the  Indian  trade.  See  Farmer,  History 
of  Detroit  and  Michigan  (Detroit,  1884),  p.  766.—  ED. 


1760-1761]  Croghans  Journals  121 

the  Smoke  of  which  ascends  to  the  Skies  you  are  going 
away  and  all  Nations  to  the  Sun  sitting  are  to  meet  here 
to  see  their  Brethren  the  English  in  possession  of  this 
place  and  we  desire  that  you  may  stay  here  till  that  Coun- 
cil, that  you  may  take  your  Master  Word  of  what  is  to 
be  transacted  here. —  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  By  this  String  we  request  you  will  con- 
sider it  will  be  difficult  for  us  to  understand  each  other. 
It  would  be  agreeable  to  us  if  you  would  continue  our  old 
Interpreter  as  he  understands  our  Language  well. —  A 
string. 

December  the  5th  the  Principal  Man  of  the  Putawatimes 
spoke 

BRETHREN:  Yesterday  our  Uncles  of  the  Six  Nations 
spoke  to  you  for  us  all;  do  not  be  surprised  at  it,  they  have 
more  understanding  in  Council  affairs  than  us,  we  have 
employed  them  to  speak  for  us  all,  and  Confirm  what 
they  have  said  by  this  Belt. —  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  Be  strong  and  bring  large  quantitys  of 
goods  to  supply  us  &  we  will  bring  all  our  Furs  to  this 
place.  We  are  glad  you  acquainted  us  that  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  French  here  are  become  English  subjects,  we  shall 
look  on  them  as  such  for  the  future  and  treat  them  as  our 
Brethren.—  A  belt. 

BRETHREN:  Our  Uncles  gave  us  this  String  of  Wam- 
pum and  desired  us  to  be  strong  and  hunt  for  you,  we 
should  be  glad  [if]  you  would  fix  the  price  to  be  given 
for  a  Deer  of  Meat,  then  insisted  strongly  that  the  six 
Nation  Deputys  should  press  their  Chiefs  to  attend  the 
General  meeting  to  be  held  here  in  the  spring  by  a  Belt. 

The  principal  Man  of  the  Ottawas  got  up  and  made 
two  speeches  to  the  same  purport  as  above. 

Then  I  made  them  the  following  speech. 


122  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

BRETHREN:  I  return  you  thanks  for  the  several  affec- 
tionate speeches  you  made  us  yesterday.  To  day  it  is 
agreed  that  he  [the  interpreter]  be  continued  till  General 
Amherst  and  Sir  William  Johnson's  pleasure  be  known; 
you  likewise  desired  I  might  stay  here  till  your  General 
Meeting  in  the  Spring,  I  am  not  my  own  Master  so 
you  must  excuse  me  till  I  receive  further  Orders. —  A  belt. 

Then  the  Present  of  Goods  was  delivered  to  each 
Nation  in  his  Majesty s  Name,  for  which  they  returned 
their  hearty  thanks. 

Then  Major  Rogers  spoke  to  them. 

BRETHREN:  I  return  you  thanks  for  your  readiness  in 
joining  his  Majestys  Troops  under  my  Command,  on  my 
way  here,  as  I  soon  set  out  to  execute  my  orders  and 
relieve  the  Garrison  of  Misselemakinach  I  take  this 
opportunity  of  taking  my  leave  of  you,  and  you  may  be 
assured  I  will  acquaint  General  Amherst  and  Sir  William 
Johnson  of  the  kind  reception  I  have  met  with  amongst 
your  Nations  and  recommend  your  services. —  A  belt. 

Then  the  Council  fire  was  covered  up  &  the  Confer- 
ence ended. 

7th. —  Mr  Butler  of  the  Rangers  set  of[f]  with  an  officer  & 
party  to  relieve  the  Garrison  at  the  Milineys87  [Miamis] 

87  The  French  fort  among  the  Miamis  (English,  Twigtwees)  was  situated 
on  the  Maumee  River,  near  the  present  site  of  Fort  Wayne.  The  date  of  its 
founding  is  in  doubt;  but  the  elder  Vincennes  was  there  in  1704,  and  soon 
after  this  frequent  mention  is  made  of  its  commandants.  During  the  revolt 
of  the  French  Indians  (1748),  the  fort  was  partially  burned.  When  Celoron 
passed,  the  succeeding  year,  he  described  it  as  in  a  bad  condition,  and  located 
on  an  unhealthful  site.  About  this  time,  the  Miamis  removed  to  the  Great 
Miami  River,  and  permitted  the  English  to  build  a  fortified  trading  house  at 
Pickawillany.  But  an  expedition  sent  out  from  Detroit  chastised  these  recalci- 
trants, and  brought  them  back  to  their  former  abode,  about  Fort  Miami  — 
which  latter  is  described  (1757)  as  protected  with  palisades,  on  the  right  bank 
of  the  river.  The  garrison  of  the  Rangers  sent  out  by  Rogers  from  Detroit 
to  secure  this  post,  was  later  replaced  by  a  small  detachment  of  the  Royal 


1760-1761]  Crogharf s  Journals  123 

with  whom  I  sent  an  Interpreter  and  gave  him  Wampum 
and  such  other  things  as  was  necessary  for  his  Journey 
and  Instructions  in  what  manner  to  speak  to  the  Indians 
in  those  parts. 

The  8th. —  Major  Rogers  set  of[f]  for  Misselemachinack 
with  whom  I  sent  Cap4  Montour  and  four  Indians  who 
were  well  acquainted  with  the  Country  and  the  Indian 
Nations  that  Inhabit  it.88 

The  9th  &  ioth.—  Capt  Campble  assembled  all  the  In- 
habitants and  read  the  Act  of  Parliament  to  them  & 
setled  matters  with  them  to  his  satisfaction,  they  agree- 
ing to  ye  billiting  of  Troops  and  furnishing  fire  Wood  & 
Provisions  for  the  Garrison,  and  indeed  every  thing  in 
their  power  for  his  Majestys  service. 

The  nth. —  In  the  Evening  Capt.  Campble  finished  his 
Letters  when  I  set  off  leaving  him  what  Wampum,  Silver 
Truck  &  Goods  I  had  for  the  Indian  service. 

The  i6th.—  We  came  to  the  little  Lake  called  Sandusky 
which  we  found  froze  over  so  as  not  to  be  passable  for 
some  days. 

The  22d. —  We  crossed  the  little  Lake  on  the  Ice  which 
is  about  6  Miles  over  to  an  Indian  Village  where  we 
found  our  Horses  which  we  sent  from  D'Troit,  there 

Americans,  under  command  of  Lieutenant  Robert  Holmes,  who  notified  Glad- 
win  of  Pontiac's  conspiracy,  but  nevertheless  himself  fell  a  victim  thereto. 
See  Morris's  Journal,  post.  The  fort  destroyed  at  this  time  was  not  rebuilt. 
Croghan  (1765)  speaks  of  it  as  ruinous.  In  the  Indian  wars  of  the  Northwest, 
Wayne,  perceiving  its  strategic  importance,  built  at  this  site  the  fort  named  in 
his  honor  (1794),  whence  arose  the  present  city. —  ED. 

88  The  expedition  of  Major  Rogers  to  relieve  the  French  at  Mackinac, 
failed  because  of  the  lateness  of  the  season,  and  the  consequent  ice  in  Lake 
Huron.  Rogers  returned  to  Detroit  December  21,  and  two  days  later  left  for 
Pittsburg,  where  he  arrived  January  23,  1761,  after  a  land  march  of  just 
one  month.  The  fort  at  Mackinac  was  delivered  over  to  an  English  detach- 
ment under  command  of  Captain  Balfour  of  the  Royal  Americans,  September 
28,  1761. —  ED. 


1 24  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

were  but  five  Indians  at  home  all  the  rest  being  gone  a 
hunting. 

23d. —  We  came  to  Chenunda  an  Indian  Village  6  miles 
from  Sandusky.89 

24th. —  We  stayed  to  hunt  up  some  Horses. 

25th. —  We  came  to  the  Principal  Mans  hunting  Cabin 
about  1 6  miles  from  Chenunda  level  Road  and  clear 
Woods,  several  Savannahs. 

26th. —  We  came  to  Mohicken  Village,  this  day,  we 
crossed  several  small  Creeks  all  branches  of  Muskingum, 
level  Road,  pretty  clear  Woods  about  30  Miles,  the  Indians 
were  all  out  a  hunting  except  one  family. 

27th. —  We  halted,  it  rained  all  day. 

28th. —  We  set  of[f],  it  snowed  all  day  &  come  to 
another  branch  of  Muskingum  about  9  Miles  good 
Road  where  we  stayed  the  2Qth  for  a  Cannoe  to  put  us 
over,  the  Creek  being  very  high. 

30th. —  We  set  of[f]  and  came  to  another  branch  of 
Muskingum  about  n  Miles  and  the  3ist  we  fell  a  Tree 
over  the  Creek  and  carry ed  over  our  Baggage  and  en- 
camped about  one  Mile  up  a  Run. 

January  the  ist. —  We  travelled  about  16  Miles  clear 
woods  &  level  Road  to  a  place  called  the  Sugar  Cabins. 

2d. —  We  came  about  12  Miles  to  the  Beavers  Town 
clear  Woods  and  good  Road. 

3d. —  Crossed  Muskingum  Creek  and  encamped  in  a 
fine  bottom  on  this  side  the  Creek. 

4th. —  Set  of[f]  and  travelled  about  20  Miles  up  a  branch 
of  Muskingum  good  Road. 


89  The  place  here  mentioned  was  a  Wyandot  town  shown  on  Hutchins's 
map  (1778).  Probably  this  was  the  village  of  the  chief  Nicholas,  founded  in 
1747  during  his  revolt  from  the  French.  See  Weiser*s  Journal,  ante. —  ED. 


1760-1761]  Croghan's  yournals  125 

5th. —  Travelled  about  18  Miles  and  crossed  a  branch 
of  little  Beaver  Creek  clear  Woods  &  good  Road. 

6th. —  Travelled  about  Eighteen  Miles  and  crossed  two 
Branches  of  little  Beaver  Creek  good  Road  &  Clear 
Woods. 

7th. —  Crossed  the  mouth  of  big  Beaver  Creek  at  an 
Indian  Village  and  came  to  Pittsburg  about  25  Miles 
good  Road  &  Clear  Woods.90 

90  Croghan  returned  to  Pittsburg  by  the  "great  trail,"  a  famous  Indian 
thoroughfare  leading  from  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio  to  Detroit.  For  a  description 
of  this  route,  see  Hulbert,  Indian  Thoroughfares  (Cleveland,  1902),  p.  107; 
and  in  more  detail  his  article  in  Ohio  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society 
Publications  (Columbus,  1899),  viii,  p.  276. 

Mohican  John's  village  was  on  White  Woman's  Creek,  near  the  site  of 
Reedsburg,  Ohio.  Beaver's  Town  was  at  the  junction  of  the  Tuscarawas  and 
the  Big  Sandy,  the  antecedent  of  the  present  Bolivar;  for  the  town  at  the  mouth 
of  Big  Beaver  Creek,  see  Weiser's  Journal,  ante. —  ED. 


CROGHAN'S  JOURNAL,  1765" 

May  1 5th,  1765. —  I  set  off  from  fort  Pitt  with  two 
batteaux,  and  encamped  at  C  harder' s  Island,  in  the  Ohio, 
three  miles  below  Fort  Pitt.92 

1 6th. —  Being  joined  by  the  deputies  of  the  Senecas, 
Shawnesse,  and  Delawares,  that  were  to  accompany  me, 

91  The  manuscript  of  the  journal  that  we  here  reprint  came  into  the  posses- 
sion of  George  William  Featherstonhaugh,  a  noted  English  geologist  who  came 
to  the  United  States  in  the  early  nineteenth  century  and  edited  a  geological 
magazine  in  Philadelphia.  He  first  published  the  document  therein  (The 
Monthly  Journal  of  American  Geology),  in  the  number  for  December,  1831. 
It  appeared  again  in  a  pamphlet,  published  at  Burlington,  N.  J.  (no  date) ;  and 
Mann  Butler  thought  it  of  sufficient  consequence  to  be  introduced  into  the 
appendix  to  his  History  of  Kentucky  (Cincinnati  and  Louisville,  and  ed.,  1836). 
Another  version  of  this  journey  (which  we  may  call  the  official  version),  also 
written  by  Croghan,  was  sent  by  Sir  William  Johnson  to  the  lords  of  trade,  and 
is  published  in  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  pp.  779-788.  Hildreth  pub- 
lished a  variant  of  the  second  (official)  version  "from  an  original  MS.  among 
Colonel  Morgan's  papers,"  in  his  Pioneer  History  of  the  Ohio  Valley  (Cincinnati, 
1848).  The  two  versions  supplement  each  other.  The  first  was  evidently  written 
for  some  persons  interested  in  lands  in  the  Western  country  —  their  fertility, 
products,  and  general  aspects;  therefore  Croghan  herein  confines  himself  to 
general  topographical  description,  and  omits  his  journey  towards  the  Illinois, 
his  meeting  with  Pontiac,  and  all  Indian  negotiations.  The  official  report, 
on  the  other  hand,  abbreviates  greatly  the  account  of  the  journey  and  the 
appearance  of  the  country,  and  concerns  itself  with  Indian  affairs  and  historical 
events.  We  have  in  the  present  publication  combined  the  two  journals,  indi- 
cating in  foot-notes  the  important  variations;  but  the  bulk  of  the  narrative  is 
a  reprint  of  the  Featherstonhaugh-Butler  version. 

With  regard  to  the  circumstances  under  which  the  official  journal  was 
transcribed,  Johnson  makes  the  following  explanation  in  his  letter  to  the  board 
of  trade  (New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  p.  775) :  "I  have  selected  the  prin- 
cipal parts  [of  this  journal]  which  I  now  inclose  to  your  Lordships,  the  whole  of 
his  Journal  is  long  and  not  yet  collected  because  after  he  was  made  Prisoner,  & 
lost  his  Baggage  &ca.  he  was  necessitated  to  write  it  on  Scraps  of  Paper  procured 
with  difficulty  at  Post  Vincent,  and  that  in  a  disguised  Character  to  prevent 
its  being  understood  by  the  French  in  case  through  any  disaster  he  might  be 
again  plundered." 

The  importance  of  this  journal  for  the  study  of  Western  history  has  fre- 
quently been  noted.  Parkman  used  it  extensively  in  his  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac. 


1765]  Croghan' s  Journals  127 

we  set  off  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  at  ten 
o'clock  arrived  at  the  Logs  Town,  an  old  settlement  of 
the  Shawnesse,  about  seventeen  miles  from  Fort  Pitt, 
where  we  put  ashore,  and  viewed  the  remains  of  that 
village,  which  was  situated  on  a  high  bank,  on  the  south 
side  of  the  Ohio  river,  a  fine  fertile  country  round  it.  At 
ii  o'clock  we  re-embarked  and  proceeded  down  the  Ohio 
to  the  mouth  of  Big  Beaver  Creek,  about  ten  miles  below 
the  Logs  Town:  this  creek  empties  itself  between  two 
fine  rich  bottoms,  a  mile  wide  on  each  side  from  the  banks 
of  the  river  to  the  highlands.  About  a  mile  below  the 
mouth  of  Beaver  Creek  we  passed  an  old  settlement  of  the 
Dela wares,  where  the  French,  in  1756,  built  a  town  for 
that  nation.  On  the  north  side  of  the  river  some  of  the 
stone  chimneys  are  yet  remaining;  here  the  highlands 
come  close  to  the  banks  and  continue  so  for  about  five 
miles.  After  which  we  passed  several  spacious  bottoms 
on  each  side  of  the  river,  and  came  to  Little  Beaver 
Creek,  about  fifteen  miles  below  Big  Beaver  Creek.  A 
number  of  small  rivulets  fall  into  the  river  on  each  side. 
From  thence  we  sailed  to  Yellow  Creek,93  being  about 

Winsor  in  his  Critical  and  Narrative  History  of  America,  v,  p.  704,  note,  first 
pointed  out  in  some  detail  the  differences  between  the  two  versions.  He  errs, 
however,  in  confusing  the  letters  Croghan  wrote  from  Vincennes  and  Ouiatonon. 
Many  secondary  authorities  also  wrongly  aver  that  Croghan  on  this  journey 
went  as  far  as  Fort  Chartres. —  ED. 

92  Croghan  arrived  at  Fort  Pitt,  February  28,  1765,  and  from  then  until  his 
departure  was  constantly  occupied  with  Indian  transactions  in  preparation  for 
his  journey.     See  Pennsylvania  Colonial  Records,  ix,  pp.  250-264;  also  Withers's 
Early  History  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  app.,  pp.  166-179. —  Er>- 

93  Little  Beaver  Creek  (near  the  western  border  of  Pennsylvania)  and  Yellow 
Creek  (in  Ohio)  were  much  frequented  by  Indians.     On  the  former,  Half  King 
had  a  hunting  cabin.     Logan,  the  noted  Mingo  chief,  lived  at  the  mouth  of 
the  latter.     Opposite,  upon  the  Virginia  shore,  occurred  the  massacre  of  Logan's 
family  (April  30,  1774),  which  was  one  of  the  opening  events  of  Lord  Dun- 
inore's  War.     See  Withers's  Chronicles  of  Border  Warfare  (Thwaites's  ed., 
Cincinnati,  1895),  p.  150,  notes. —  ED. 


I  28  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

fifteen  miles  from  the  last  mentioned  creek:  here  and 
there  the  hills  come  close  to  the  banks  of  the  river  on  each 
side,  but  where  there  are  bottoms,  they  are  very  large, 
and  well  watered;  numbers  of  small  rivulets  running 
through  them,  falling  into  the  Ohio  on  both  sides.  We 
encamped  on  the  river  bank,  and  found  a  great  part  of  the 
trees  in  the  bottom  are  covered  with  grape  vines.  This 
day  we  passed  by  eleven  islands,  one  of  which  being  about 
seven  miles  long.  For  the  most  part  of  the  way  we  made 
this  day,  the  banks  of  the  river  are  high  and  steep.  The 
course  of  the  Ohio  from  Fort  Pitt  to  the  mouth  of  Beaver 
Creek  inclines  to  the  north-west;  from  thence  to  the  two 
creeks  partly  due  west. 

1 7th. —  At  6  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  embarked:  and 
were  delighted  with  the  prospect  of  a  fine  open  country 
on  each  side  of  the  river  as  we  passed  down.  We  came 
to  a  place  called  the  Two  Creeks,  about  fifteen  miles  from 
Yellow  Creek,  where  we  put  to  shore;  here  the  Senecas 
have  a  village  on  a  high  bank,  on  the  north  side  of  the 
river;  the  chief  of  this  village  offered  me  his  service  to  go 
with  me  to  the  Illinois,  which  I  could  not  refuse  for  fear 
of  giving  him  offence,  although  I  had  a  sufficient  number 
of  deputies  with  me  already.94  From  thence  we  pro- 
ceeded down  the  river,  passed  many  large,  rich,  and  fine 
bottoms;  the  highlands  being  at  a  considerable  distance 

94  The  village  here  described  was  Mingo  Town  on  Mingo  bottom,  situated 
at  the  present  Mingo  Junction,  Ohio.  It  is  not  to  be  confused  with  the  Mingo 
bottom  opposite  the  mouth  of  Yellow  Creek.  The  former  town  was  prominent 
as  a  rendezvous  for  border  war-parties  in  the  Revolutionary  period.  From  this 
point,  started  the  rabble  that  massacred  the  Moravian  Indians  in  1782.  Colonel 
Crawford  set  out  from  here,  in  May  of  the  same  year,  on  his  ill-fated  expedition 
against  the  Sandusky  Indians.  See  Withers's  Chronicles,  chap.  13. 

Possibly  the  chief  who  joined  Croghan  at  this  point  was  Logan,  since 
the  former  had  known  him  in  his  earlier  home  on  the  Susquehanna,  near 
Sunbury. —  ED. 


1765]  Croghari s  Journals  129 

from  the  river  banks,  till  we  came  to  the  Buffalo  Creek, 
being  about  ten  miles  below  the  Seneca  village;  and  from 
Buffalo  Creek,  we  proceeded  down  the  river  to  Fat  Meat 
Creek,  about  thirty  miles.95  The  face  of  the  country 
appears  much  like  what  we  met  with  before ;  large,  rich,  and 
well  watered  bottoms,  then  succeeded  by  the  hills  pinch- 
ing close  on  the  river;  these  bottoms,  on  the  north  side, 
appear  rather  low,  and  consequently  subject  to  inunda- 
tions, in  the  spring  of  the  year,  when  there  never  fail  to  be 
high  freshes  in  the  Ohio,  owing  to  the  melting  of  the  snows. 
This  day  we  passed  by  ten  fine  islands,  though  the  greatest 
part  of  them  are  small.  They  lay  much  higher  out  of 
the  water  than  the  main  land,  and  of  course  less  subject 
to  be  flooded  by  the  freshes.  At  night  we  encamped  near 
an  Indian  village.  The  general  course  of  the  river  from  the 
Two  Creeks  to  Fat  Meat  Creek  inclines  to  the  southwest. 
1 8th. —  At  6  o'clock,  A.M.  we  set  off  in  our  batteaux; 
the  country  on  both  sides  of  the  river  appears  delightful; 
the  hills  are  several  miles  from  the  river  banks,  and  con- 
sequently the  bottoms  large;  the  soil,  timber,  and  banks 
of  the  river,  much  like  those  we  have  before  described; 
about  fifty  miles  below  Fat  Meat  Creek,  we  enter  the 
long  reach,  where  the  river  runs  a  straight  course  for 
twenty  miles,  and  makes  a  delightful  prospect;  the  banks 
continue  high;  the  country  on  both  sides,  level,  rich,  and 
well  watered.  At  the  lower  end  of  the  reach  we  en- 
camped.96 This  day  we  passed  nine  islands,  some  of 
which  are  large,  and  lie  high  out  of  the  water. 

95  Buffalo  Creek  is  in  Brooke  County,  West  Virginia,  with  the  town  of  Wells- 
burg  located  at  its  mouth.  The  first  settlers  arrived  about  1769.  Fat  Meat 
Creek  is  not  identified;  from  the  distances  given,  it  might  be  Big  Grave  Creek, 
in  Marshall  County,  West  Virginia,  or  Pipe  Creek,  nearly  opposite,  in  Belmont 
County,  Ohio. —  ED. 

98  The  "Long  Reach"  lies  between  Fishing  Creek  and  the  Muskingum, 
sixteen  and  a  half  miles  in  a  nearly  straight  line  to  the  southwest. —  ED. 


130  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

igth. —  We  decamped  at  six  in  the  morning,  and  sailed 
to  a  place  called  the  Three  Islands,  being  about  fifteen 
miles  from  our  last  encampment;  here  the  highlands  come 
close  to  the  river  banks,  and  the  bottoms  for  the  most 
part  —  till  we  come  to  the  Muskingum  (or  Elk)97  river  — 
are  but  narrow:  this  river  empties  itself  into  the  Ohio 
about  fifteen  miles  below  the  Three  Islands;  the  banks  of 
the  river  continue  steep,  and  the  country  is  level,  for 
several  miles  back  from  the  river.  The  course  of  the 
river  from  Fat  Meat  Creek  to  Elk  River,  is  about  south- 
west and  by  south.  We  proceeded  down  the  river  about 
fifteen  miles,  to  the  mouth  of  Little  Conhawa  River,  with 
little  or  no  alteration  in  the  face  of  the  country;  here  we 
encamped  in  a  fine  rich  bottom,  after  having  passed 
fourteen  islands,  some  of  them  large,  and  mostly  lying 
high  out  of  the  water.98  Here  buffaloes,  bears,  turkeys, 
with  all  other  kinds  of  wild  game  are  extremely  plenty. 

87  The  French  called  the  Muskingum  Yanangue-kouan  —  the  river  of  the 
Tobacco  (Petun-Huron)  Indians.  Celoron  (1749)  left  at  the  mouth  of  this 
river,  one  of  his  plates,  which  was  found  in  1798,  and  is  now  in  possession  of 
the  American  Antiquarian  Society,  at  Worcester,  Massachusetts.  Croghan 
had  frequently  been  on  the  Muskingum,  where  as  early  as  1750,  he  had  a  trad- 
ing house.  The  inhabitants  at  that  time  appear  to  have  been  Wyandots;  but 
after  the  French  and  Indian  War  the  Delawares  retreated  thither,  and  built 
their  towns  on  the  upper  Muskingum.  Later,  the  Moravian  missionaries 
removed  their  converts  thither,  and  erected  upon  the  banks  of  this  river  their 
towns,  Salem,  Schonbrunn,  and  Gnadenhutten.  In  1785,  Fort  Harmar  was 
placed  at  its  mouth;  and  thither,  three  years  later,  came  the  famous  colony  of 
New  England  Revolutionary  soldiers,  under  the  leadership  of  Rufus  Putnam, 
which  founded  Marietta. —  ED. 

98  The  Little  Kanawha  was  the  terminus  of  the  exploring  expedition  of 
George  Rogers  Clark  and  Jones  in  1772.  They  reported  unfavorably  in  regard 
to  the  lands;  but  settlers  soon  began  to  occupy  them,  and  they  were  a  part  of 
the  grant  given  to  Trent,  Croghan,  and  others  at  the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix 
(1768)  as  a  reparation  for  their  losses  in  the  previous  wars.  About  the  time 
of  Croghan's  visit,  Captain  Bull,  a  well-known  Delaware  Indian  of  New  York, 
removed  to  the  Little  Kanawha,  and  in  1772  his  village,  Bulltown,  was  the 
scene  of  a  revolting  massacre  of  friendly  Indians  by  brutal  white  borderers. —  ED  . 


1765]  Croghan's  Journals  131 

A  good  hunter,  without  much  fatigue  to  himself,  could 
here  supply  daily  one  hundred  men  with  meat.  The 
course  of  the  Ohio,  from  Elk  River  to  Little  Conhawa,  is 
about  south. 

2oth. —  At  six  in  the  morning  we  embarked  in  our 
boats,  and  proceeded  down  to  the  mouth  of  Hochocken 
or  Bottle  River,"  where  we  were  obliged  to  encamp, 
having  a  strong  head  wind  against  us.  We  made  but 
twenty  miles  this  day,  and  passed  by  five  very  fine  islands, 
the  country  the  whole  way  being  rich  and  level,  with  high 
and  steep  banks  to  the  rivers.  From  here  I  despatched 
an  Indian  to  the  Plains  of  Scioto,  with  a  letter  to  the 
French  traders  from  the  Illinois  residing  there,  amongst 
the  Shawnesse,  requiring  them  to  come  and  join  me  at  the 
mouth  of  Scioto,  in  order  to  proceed  with  me  to  their 
own  country,  and  take  the  oaths  of  allegiance  to  his 
Britannic  Majesty,  as  they  were  now  become  his  sub- 
jects, and  had  no  right  to  trade  there  without  license. 
At  the  same  time  I  sent  messages  to  the  Shawnesse  Indians 
to  oblige  the  French  to  come  to  me  in  case  of  refusal. 

2 1 st. —  We  embarked  at  half  past  8  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing, and  sailed  to  a  place  called  the  Big  Bend,  about 
thirty-five  miles  below  Bottle  River.  The  course  of  the 
Ohio,  from  Little  Conhawa  River  to  Big  Bend,  is  about 
south-west  by  south.  The  country  hereabouts  abounds 

99  Hockhocking  is  the  local  Indian  name  for  a  bottle-shaped  gourd,  to 
which  they  likened  the  course  of  this  river.  Its  chief  historical  event  is  con- 
nected with  Lord  Dunmore's  War.  Nine  years  after  this  voyage  of  Croghan, 
Dunmore  descended  the  Ohio  with  his  flotilla,  and  disembarking  at  the  river 
with  his  army  of  regulars  and  frontiersmen  —  Clark,  Cresap,  Kenton,  and 
Girty  among  the  number  —  marched  overland  to  the  Scioto,  leaving  Fort 
Gower  here  to  guard  his  rear.  Signs  of  the  earthwork  of  this  fortification  are 
still  visible.  At  this  place,  on  the  return  journey,  the  Virginia  officers  of  the 
army  drew  up  resolutions  of  sympathy  with  the  Continental  Congress  then  in 
session  at  Philadelphia. —  ED. 


132  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

with  buffalo,  bears,  deer,  and  all  sorts  of  wild  game,  in  such 
plenty,  that  we  killed  out  of  our  boats  as  much  as  we 
wanted.  We  proceeded  down  the  river  to  the  Buffalo 
Bottom,  about  ten  miles  from  the  beginning  of  the  Big 
Bend,  where  we  encamped.  The  country  on  both  sides 
of  the  river,  much  the  same  as  we  passed  the  day  before. 
This  day  we  passed  nine  islands,  all  lying  high  out  of  the 
water. 

22d. —  At  half  an  hour  past  5  o'clock',  set  off  and  sailed 
to  a  place,  called  Alum  Hill,  so  called  from  the  great 
quantity  of  that  mineral  found  there  by  the  Indians;  this 
place  lies  about  ten  miles  from  Buffalo  Bottom;100  thence 
we  sailed  to  the  mouth  of  Great  Conhawa  River,101 
being  ten  miles  from  the  Alum  Hill.  The  course  of  the 
river,  from  the  Great  Bend  to  this  place,  is  mostly  west; 
from  hence  we  proceeded  down  to  Little  Guyondott 
River,  where  we  encamped,  about  thirty  miles  from  Great 
Conhawa;  the  country  still  fine  and  level;  the  bank  of  the 
river  high,  with  abundance  of  creeks  and  rivulets  falling 
into  it.  This  day  we  passed  six  fine  islands.  In  the 
evening  one  of  our  Indians  discovered  three  Cherokees 
near  our  encampment,  which  obliged  our  Indians  to  keep 

100 The  "Big  Bend"  of  the  river  is  that  now  known  as  Pomeroy's  Bend, 
from  the  Ohio  town  at  its  upper  point.  Alum  Hill  was  probably  West  Colum- 
bia, Mason  County,  West  Virginia.  See  Lewis,  History  of  West  Virginia 
(Philadelphia,  1889),  p.  109.—  ED. 

101  The  Kanawha  takes  its  name  from  a  tribe  of  Indians  who  formerly  lived 
in  its  valley,  but  they  were  destroyed  by  the  Iroquois  in  the  early  eighteenth 
century.  Ce*loron  called  it  the  Chinondaista,  and  at  its  mouth  buried  a  plate 
which  is  now  in  the  museum  of  the  Virginia  Historical  Society,  at  Richmond. 
Gist  surveyed  here  for  the  Ohio  Company  in  1752;  later,  Washington  owned 
ten  thousand  acres  in  the  vicinity,  and  visited  the  spot  in  1774.  That  same  year, 
the  battle  of  Point  Pleasant  was  fought  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kanawha  by  Colonel 
Andrew  Lewis's  division  of  Lord  Dunmore's  army;  and  the  succeeding  year, 
Fort  Randolph  was  built  to  protect  the  frontiers.  Daniel  Boone  retired  hither 
from  Kentucky,  and  lived  in  this  neighborhood  four  years  (1791-95),  before 
migrating  to  Missouri. —  ED. 


1765]  Crogharis  Journals  133 

out  a  good  guard  the  first  part  of  the  night.  Our  party 
being  pretty  strong,  I  imagine  the  Cherokees  were  afraid  to 
attack  us,  and  so  ran  off. 

23d. —  Decamped  about  five  in  the  morning,  and 
arrived  at  Big  Guyondott,  twenty  miles  from  our  last 
encampment:  the  country  as  of  yesterday;  from  hence  we 
proceeded  down  to  Sandy  River  being  twenty  miles 
further;  thence  to  the  mouth  of  Scioto,  about  forty  miles 
from  the  last  mentioned  river.  The  general  course  of 
the  river  from  Great  Conhawa  to  this  place  inclines  to 
the  south-west.  The  soil  rich,  the  country  level,  and 
the  banks  of  the  river  high.  The  soil  on  the  banks  of 
Scioto,  for  a  vast  distance  up  the  country,  is  prodigious 
rich,  the  bottoms  very  wide,  and  in  the  spring  of  the  year, 
many  of  them  are  flooded,  so  that  the  river  appears  to 
be  two  or  three  miles  wide.  Bears,  deer,  turkeys,  and 
most  sorts  of  wild  game,  are  very  plenty  on  the  banks  of 
this  river.  On  the  Ohio,  just  below  the  mouth  of  Scioto, 
on  a  high  bank,  near  forty  feet,  formerly  stood  the  Shaw- 
nesse  town,  called  the  Lower  Town,  which  was  all  car- 
ried away,  except  three  or  four  houses,  by  a  great  flood 
in  the  Scioto.  I  was  in  the  town  at  the  time,  though  the 
banks  of  the  Ohio  were  so  high,  the  water  was  nine  feet 
on  the  top,  which  obliged  the  whole  town  to  take  to  their 
canoes,  and  move  with  their  effects  to  the  hills.  The 
Shawnesse  afterwards  built  their  town  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  river,  which,  during  the  French  war,  they 
abandoned,  for  fear  of  the  Virginians,  and  removed  to  the 
plains  on  Scioto.  The  Ohio  is  about  one  hundred  yards 
wider  here  than  at  Fort  Pitt,  which  is  but  a  small  augumen- 
tation,  considering  the  great  number  of  rivers  and  creeks, 
that  fall  into  it  during  the  course  of  four  hundred  and 
twenty  miles;  and  as  it  deepens  but  very  little,  I  imagine 


134  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

the  water  sinks,  though  there  is  no  visible  appearance  of 
it.  In  general  all  the  lands  on  the  Scioto  River,  as  well  as 
the  bottoms  on  Ohio,  are  too  rich  for  any  thing  but  hemp, 
flax,  or  Indian  corn.102 

24th,  25th,  and  26th. —  Stayed  at  the  mouth  of  Scioto, 
waiting  for  the  Shawnesse ,  and  French  traders,  who 
arrived  here  on  the  evening  of  the  26th,  in  consequence 
of  the  message  I  sent  them  from  Hochocken,  or  Bottle 
Creek.103 

27th. —  The  Indians  requested  me  to  stay  this  day, 
which  I  could  not  refuse. 

28th. —  We  set  off:  passing  down  the  Ohio,  the  country 
on  both  sides  the  river  level;  the  banks  continue  high. 
This  day  we  came  sixty  miles;  passed  no  islands.  The 
river  being  wider  and  deeper,  we  drove  all  night. 

2gth. —  We  came  to  the  little  Miame  River,  having  pro- 
ceeded sixty  miles  last  night. 

102  The  word  Scioto  probably  signified  ' '  deer, ' '  although  it  is  said  by  David 
Jones  to  mean  "hairy"  river,  from  the  multitude  of  deer's  hairs  which  floated 
down  the  stream.     The  valley  of  the  Scioto  is  famous  in  Western  annals.     Dur- 
ing the  second  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  it  was  the  chief  seat  of  the  Shawnees 
whose  lower,  or  ' '  Shannoah,' '  town  has  been  frequently  mentioned  in  the  Indian 
transactions  which  we  have  printed.      The    Shawnees,  on  their  withdrawal 
up  the  valley,  built  the  Chillicothe  towns,  where  Pontiac's  conspiracy  was  largely 
fomented.     These  were  the  starting  point  of  many  raids  against  the  Kentucky 
and  West  Virginia  settlements.     From  these  villages  Mrs.  Ingles  and  Mrs. 
Dennis  made  their  celebrated  escapes  in  1755  and  1763  respectively.     During 
all  the  long  series  of  wars  closing  with  Wayne's  victory  in  1794,  the  intractable 
Shawnees  were  among  the  most  dreaded  of  the  Indian  enemy. —  ED. 

103  The  result  of  this  message  in  regard  to  the  French  traders,  is  thus  given 
in  the  official  version  of  the  journal: 

<{26th.  Several  of  the  Shawanese  came  there  &  brought  with  them  7 
French  Traders  which  they  delivered  to  me,  those  being  all  that  resided  in 
their  Villages,  &  told  me  there  was  just  six  more  living  with  the  Delawares, 
that  on  their  return  to  their  Towns  they  would  go  to  the  Delawares  &  get  them 
to  send  those  French  Traders  home,  &  told  me  they  were  determined  to  do 
everything  in  their  power  to  convince  me  of  their  sincerity  &  good  disposition 
to  preserve  a  peace.' ' —  ED. 


1765]  Croghan' s  Journals  135 

3oth. —  We  passed  the  Great  Miame  River,  about 
thirty  miles  from  the  little  river  of  that  name,  and  in  the 
evening  arrived  at  the  place  where  the  Elephants'  bones  are 
found,  where  we  encamped,  intending  to  take  a  view  of 
the  place  next  morning.  This  day  we  came  about 
seventy  miles.  The  country  on  both  sides  level,  and  rich 
bottoms  well  watered. 

3 1 st. —  Early  in  the  morning  we  went  to  the  great  Lick, 
where  those  bones  are  only  found,  about  four  miles  from  the 
river,  on  the  south-east  side.  In  our  way  we  passed 
through  a  fine  timbered  clear  wood',  we  came  into  a  large  road 
which  the  Buffaloes  have  beaten,  spacious  enough  for  two 
waggons  to  go  abreast,  and  leading  straight  into  the  Lick. 
It  appears  that  there  are  vast  quantities  of  these  bones  lying 
five  or  six  feet  under  ground,  which  we  discovered  in  the 
bank,  at  the  edge  of  the  Lick.  We  found  here  two  tusks 
above  six  feet  long;  we  carried  one,  with  some  other  bones, 
to  our  boats,  and  set  off.104  This  day  we  proceeded  down 
the  river  about  eighty  miles,  through  a  country  much  the 
same  as  already  described,  since  we  passed  the  Scioto. 
In  this  day's  journey  we  passed  the  mouth  of  the  River 
Kentucky,  or  Holsten's  River.105 

104  Big  Bone  Lick,  in  Boone  County,  Kentucky,  was  visited  by  the  French 
in  the  early  eighteenth  century.  It  was  a  landmark  for  early  Kentucky  hunters, 
who  describe  it  in  terms  similar  to  those  used  by  Croghan.  At  the  beginning 
of  the  nineteenth  century,  scientists  took  much  interest  in  the  remains  of  the 
mammoth  (or  mastodon) — the  "elephant's  bones"  described  by  Croghan. 
Thomas  Jefferson  and  several  members  of  the  American  Philosophical  Soci- 
ety, at  Philadelphia,  attempted  to  secure  a  complete  skeleton  of  this  extinct 
giant;  and  a  number  of  fossils  from  the  lick  were  also  sent  to  Europe.  Dr. 
Goforth  of  Cincinnati  undertook  an  exploration  to  the  lick  at  his  own  expense 
(1803),  but  was  later  robbed  of  the  result.  The  store  of  huge  bones  is  not  yet 
entirely  exhausted,  specimens  being  yet  occasionally  excavated  —  the  present 
writer  having  examined  some  there  in  1894. —  ED. 

106  It  is  a  curious  mistake  on  Croghan's  part  to  designate  the  Kentucky 
as  the  Holston  River.  The  latter  is  a  branch  of  the  Tennessee,  flowing  through 


136  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

June  ist. —  We  arrived  within  a  mile  of  the  Falls  of 
Ohio,  where  we  encamped,  after  coming  about  fifty 
miles  this  day. 

2d. —  Early  in  the  morning  we  embarked,  and  passed 
the  Falls.  The  river  being  very  low  we  were  obliged  to 
lighten  our  boats,  and  pass  on  the  north  side  of  a  little 
island,  which  lays  in  the  middle  of  the  river.  In  general, 
what  is  called  the  Fall  here,  is  no  more  than  rapids;  and 
in  the  least  fresh,  a  batteau  of  any  size  may  come  and  go 
on  each  side  without  any  risk.106  This  day  we  proceeded 
sixty  miles,  in  the  course  of  which  we  passed  Pidgeon 
River.  The  country  pretty  high  on  each  side  of  the  River 
Ohio. 

3d. —  In  the  forepart  of  this  day's  course,  we  passed 
high  lands;  about  mid-day  we  came  to  a  fine,  flat,  and 
level  country,  called  by  the  Indians  the  Low  Lands;  no 
hills  to  be  seen.  We  came  about  eighty  miles  this  day, 
and  encamped. 

4th. —  We  came  to  a  place  called  the  Five  Islands;  these 
islands  are  very  long,  and  succeed  one  another  in  a  chain; 
the  country  still  flat  and  level,  the  soil  exceedingly  rich, 
and  well  watered.  The  highlands  are  at  least  fifty  miles 

the  mountains  of  Tennessee,  North  Caiolina,  and  Virginia.  Its  valley  was 
early  settled  by  Croghan's  friends,  Scotch-Irish  from  Pennsylvania.  It  is 
probable  that,  as  the  Kentucky's  waters  come  from  that  direction,  he  had  a 
confused  idea  of  the  topography. —  ED. 

108  One  of  the  earliest  descriptions  of  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio.  Gist  was 
ordered  to  explore  as  far  as  there  in  1750,  but  did  not  reach  the  goal.  Findlay 
was  there  in  1753.  Gordon  gives  an  account  similar  to  Croghan's  in  1766. 
Ensign  Butricke  made  more  of  an  adventure  in  passing  these  falls  —  see  His- 
torical Magazine,  viii,  p.  259.  An  attempt  at  a  settlement  was  made  by  John 
Connolly  (1773);  but  the  beginnings  of  the  present  city  of  Louisville  are  due 
to  the  pioneers  who  accompanied  George  Rogers  Clark  thither  in  1778,  and 
made  their  first  home  on  Corn  Island.  For  the  early  history  of  Louisville, 
see  Durrett,  Centenary  of  Louisville,  Filson  Club  Publications,  No.  8  (Louis- 
ville, 1893).— ED. 


1765]  Croghan' s  Journals  137 

from  the  banks  of  the  Ohio.  In  this  day's  course  we 
passed  about  ninety  miles,  the  current  being  very  strong. 

5th. —  Having  passed  the  Five  Islands,  we  came  to  a 
place  called  the  Owl  River.  Came  about  forty  miles  this 
day.  The  country  the  same  as  yesterday. 

6th. —  We  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ouabache,107 
where  we  found  a  breast-work  erected,  supposed  to  be 
done  by  the  Indians.  The  mouth  of  this  river  is  about 
two  hundred  yards  wide,  and  in  its  course  runs  through 
one  of  the  finest  countries  in  the  world,  the  lands  being 
exceedingly  rich,  and  well  watered;  here  hemp  might  be 
raised  in  immense  quantities.  All  the  bottoms,  and 
almost  the  whole  country  abounds  with  great  plenty  of 
the  white  and  red  mulberry  tree.  These  trees  are  to  be 
found  in  great  plenty,  in  all  places  between  the  mouth  of 
Scioto  and  the  Ouabache:  the  soil  of  the  latter  affords 
this  tree  in  plenty  as  far  as  Ouicatonon,  and  some  few 
on  the  Miame  River.  Several  large  fine  islands  lie  in  the 
Ohio,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Ouabache,  the  banks  of 
which  are  high,  and  consequently  free  from  inundations; 
hence  we  proceeded  down  the  river  about  six  miles  to 
encamp,  as  I  judged  some  Indians  were  sent  to  way-lay 
us,  and  came  to  a  place  called  the  Old  Shawnesse  Village, 

107  Colonel  Reuben  T.  Durrett,  of  Louisville,  thinks  Croghan  "must  have 
meant  Salt  River  when  he  spoke  of  passing  Pigeon  River  during  his  first  day's 
journey  after  leaving  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio."  The  Owl  River  he  identifies  with 
Highland  Creek  in  Kentucky,  between  the  mouths  of  the  Green  and  Wabash 
rivers. 

The  Wabash  River  was  early  considered  by  the  French  as  one  of  the 
most  important  highways  between  Canada  and  Louisiana.  Marquette  desig- 
nates it  on  his  map  as  the  Ouabouskiguo,  which  later  Frenchmen  corrupted 
into  Ouabache.  The  name  was  also  applied  to  that  portion  of  the  Ohio  below 
the  mouth  of  the  Wabash;  but  James  Logan  in  1718  noted  the  distinction. 
See  Winsor,  Mississippi  Basin,  p.  17.  Croghan  was  probably  the  first  Eng- 
lishman who  had  penetrated  thus  far  into  the  former  French  territory,  except 
Fraser,  who  had  preceded  him  to  the  Illinois. —  ED. 


138  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

some  of  that  nation  having  formerly  lived  there.108  In 
this  day's  proceedings  we  came  about  seventy-six  miles. 
The  general  course  of  the  river,  from  Scioto  to  this  place, 
is  south-west. 

7th. —  We  stayed  here  and  despatched  two  Indians  to 
the  Illinois  by  land,  with  letters  to  Lord  Frazer,  an  Eng- 
lish officer,  who  had  been  sent  there  from  Fort  Pitt,  and 
Monsieur  St.  Ange,109  the  French  commanding  officer  at 
Fort  Chartres,  and  some  speeches  to  the  Indians  there, 
letting  them  know  of  my  arrival  here;  that  peace  was  made 
between  us  and  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  and  Shaw- 
nesse,  and  of  my  having  a  number  of  deputies  of  those 
nations  along  with  me,  to  conclude  matters  with  them 
also  on  my  arrival  there.  This  day  one  of  my  men  went 
into  the  woods  and  lost  himself.110 

8th. —  At  day-break  we  were  attacked  by  a  party  of 
Indians,  consisting  of  eighty  warriors  of  the  Kiccapoos 

108  The  Shawnees  had  formerly  dwelt  west  and  south  of  their  habitations 
on  the  Scioto.     The  Cumberland  River  was  known  on  early  maps  as  the 
"Shawana  River;"  and  in  1718,  they  were  located  in  the  direction  of  Carolina. 
Their  migration  east  and  north  took  place  about  1730.     The  present  Illinois 
town  at  this  site,  is  still  called  Shawneetown. —  ED. 

109  Being  able  to  speak  French,  Lieutenant  Alexander  Fraser  of  the  78th 
infantry  had  been  detailed  to  accompany  Croghan.     He  went  in  advance  of 
the  latter,  and  reached  the  Illinois,  where  he  found  himself  in  such  danger  that 
he  escaped  to  Mobile  in  disguise.      See  Parkman,  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac,  ii,  pp. 
276,  284-286. 

Captain  Louis  St.  Ange  de  Bellerive,  was  the  son  of  a  French  officer  who 
came  to  Louisiana  early  in  the  eighteenth  century,  and  commanded  in  the 
Illinois  country  in  1722  and  again  in  1733.  St.  Ange  had  himself  seen  much 
pioneer  service,  having  been  placed  in  charge  of  a  fort  on  the  Missouri  (1736), 
and  having  succeeded  Vincennes  at  the  post  bearing  the  latter's  name.  St. 
Ange  remained  at  Vincennes  until  summoned  by  De  Villiers,  commandant  at 
Fort  Chartres,  to  supersede  him  there,  and  spare  him  the  mortification  of  a 
surrender  to  the  English.  After  yielding  Fort  Chartres  to  Captain  Sterling 
(October,  1765),  St.  Ange  retired  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  acted  as  commandant 
(after  1766,  in  the  Spanish  service)  until  his  death  in  1774. —  ED. 

110  This  man  was  in  reality  captured.     See  Parkman,  Conspiracy  oj  Pon- 
tiac, ii,  p.  289,  note. —  ED. 


1765]  Crogharis  journals  139 

and  Musquattimes,111  who  killed  two  of  my  men  and  three 
Indians,  wounded  myself  and  all  the  rest  of  my  party, 
except  two  white  men  and  one  Indian ;  then  made  myself 
and  all  the  white  men  prisoners,  plundering  us  of  every 
thing  we  had.  A  deputy  of  the  Shawnesse  who  was  shot 
through  the  thigh,  having  concealed  himself  in  the  woods 
for  a  few  minutes  after  he  was  wounded  —  not  knowing 
but  they  were  Southern  Indians,  who  are  always  at  war 
with  the  northward  Indians  —  after  discovering  what 
nation  they  were,  came  up  to  them  and  made  a  very  bold 
speech,  telling  them  that  the  whole  northward  Indians 
would  join  in  taking  revenge  for  the  insult  and  murder 
of  their  people;  this  alarmed  those  savages  very  much, 
who  began  excusing  themselves,  saying  their  fathers,  the 
French,  had  spirited  them  up,  telling  them  that  the  Indians 
were  coming  with  a  body  of  southern  Indians  to  take 
their  country  from  them,  and  enslave  them;  that  it  was 
this  that  induced  them  to  commit  this  outrage.  After 
dividing  the  plunder,  (they  left  great  part  of  the  heaviest 
effects  behind,  not  being  able  to  carry  them,)  they  set  off 
with  us  to  their  village  at  Ouattonon,  in  a  great  hurry, 
being  in  dread  of  pursuit  from  a  large  party  of  Indians 
they  suspected  were  coming  after  me.  Our  course  was 
through  a  thick  woody  country,  crossing  a  great  many 
swamps,  morasses,  and  beaver  ponds.  We  traveled  this 
day  about  forty-two  miles. 

111  The  Kickapoos  and  Mascoutins  were  allied  Algonquian  tribes  who  were 
first  encountered  in  Wisconsin;  but  being  of  roving  habits  they  ranged  all  the 
prairie  lands  between  the  Wisconsin  and  Wabash  rivers.  In  1712,  they  were 
about  the  Maumee  and  at  Detroit.  Charlevoix  describes  them  (1721)  as  living 
near  Chicago.  Being  concerned  in  the  Fox  wars,  they  fled  across  the  Missis- 
sippi; and  again,  about  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  were  with  the 
Miamis  on  the  Wabash,  where  they  had  a  town  near  Fort  Ouiatonon.  They 
were  always  somewhat  intractable  and  difficult  to  restrain.  The  remnant  of 
these  tribes  live  on  reservations  in  Kansas  and  Oklahoma. —  ED. 


140  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

gth. —  An  hour  before  day  we  set  out  on  our  march; 
passed  through  thick  woods,  some  highlands,  and  small 
savannahs,  badly  watered.  Traveled  this  day  about 
thirty  miles. 

loth. —  We  set  out  very  early  in  the  morning,  and 
marched  through  a  high  country,  extremely  well  timbered, 
for  three  hours;  then  came  to  a  branch  of  the  Ouabache,^ 
which  we  crossed.112  The  remainder  of  this  day  we 
traveled  through  fine  rich  bottoms,  overgrown  with  reeds, 
which  make  the  best  pasture  in  the  world,  the  young 
reeds  being  preferable  to  sheaf  oats.  Here  is  great 
plenty  of  wild  game  of  all  kinds.  Came  this  day  about 
twenty-eight,  or  thirty  miles. 

nth. —  At  day-break  we  set  off,  making  our  way 
through  a  thin  woodland,  interspersed  with  savannahs.  I 
suffered  extremely  by  reason  of  the  excessive  heat  of  the 
weather,  and  scarcity  of  water;  the  little  springs  and  runs 
being  dried  up.  Traveled  this  day  about  thirty  miles. 

1 2th. —  We  passed  through  some  large  savannahs,  and 
clear  woods;  in  the  afternoon  we  came  to  the  Ouabache; 
then  marched  along  it  through  a  prodigious  rich  bottom, 
overgrown  with  reeds  and  wild  hemp;  all  this  bottom  is 
well  watered,  and  an  exceeding  fine  hunting  ground. 
Came  this  day  about  thirty  miles. 

1 3th. —  About  an  hour  before  day  we  set  out;  traveled 
through  such  bottoms  as  of  yesterday,  and  through  some 
large  meadows,  where  no  trees,  for  several  miles  together, 
are  to  be  seen.  Buffaloes,  deer,  and  bears  are  here  in 
great  plenty.  We  traveled  about  twenty-six  miles  this 
day. 

112  This  branch  of  the  Wabash  is  now  called  the  Little  Wabash  River.  The 
party  must  have  taken  a  very  circuitous  route,  else  Croghan  greatly  overesti- 
mates the  distances.  Vincennes  is  about  seventy-five  miles  from  the  point 
where  they  were  made  prisoners. —  ED. 


1765]  Croghan's  Journals  141 

1 4th. —  The  country  we  traveled  through  this  day, 
appears  the  same  as  described  yesterday,  excepting  this 
afternoon's  journey  through  woodland,  to  cut  off  a  bend 
of  the  river.  Came  about  twenty-seven  miles  this  day. 

1 5th. —  We  set  out  very  early,  and  about  one  o'clock 
came  to  the  Ouabache,  within  six  or  seven  miles  of  Port 
Vincent.113  On  my  arrival  there,  I  found  a  village  of 
about  eighty  or  ninety  French  families  settled  on  the  east 
side  of  this  river,  being  one  of  the  finest  situations  that  can 
be  found.  The  country  is  level  and  clear,  and  the  soil 
very  rich,  producing  wheat  and  tobacco.  I  think  the 
latter  preferable  to  that  of  Maryland  or  Virginia.  The 
French  inhabitants  hereabouts,  are  an  idle,  lazy  people,  a 
parcel  of  renegadoes  from  Canada,  and  are  much  worse 
than  the  Indians.  They  took  a  secret  pleasure  at  our 
misfortunes,  and  the  moment  we  arrived,  they  came  to 
the  Indians,  exchanging  trifles  for  their  valuable  plunder. 
As  the  savages  took  from  me  a  considerable  quantity  of 

113  The  date  of  the  founding  of  Vincennes  (Post  or  Port  Vincent)  has  been 
varyingly  assigned  from  1702  to  1735;  but  Dunn,  in  his  Indiana  (Boston  and 
New  York,  1888),  p.  54,  shows  quite  conclusively  that  Francois  Margane, 
Sieur  de  Vincennes,  went  thither  at  the  request  of  Governor  Perier  of  Louisiana 
in  1727,  and  founded  a  fort  to  counteract  the  designs  of  the  English  against  the 
French  trade.  The  French  colony  was  not  begun  until  1735,  and  the  next  year 
the  commandant  Vincennes  was  captured  and  burnt  by  the  Chickasaws,  while 
engaged  in  an  expedition  against  their  country.  Louis  St.  Ange  succeeded  to 
the  position  of  commandant  at  Vincennes,  which  he  continued  to  hold  until 
1764,  when  summoned  to  the  Illinois.  He  left  two  soldiers  in  charge  at  Vin- 
cennes, of  whom  and  their  companions  Croghan  gives  this  unfavorable  account. 
No  English  officer  appeared  to  take  command  at  Vincennes  until  1777;  mean- 
while General  Gage  had  endeavored  to  expel  the  French  inhabitants  therefrom 
(1772-73).  It  is  not  surprising,  therefore,  that  they  received  the  Americans  under 
George  Rogers  Clark  (1778),  with  cordiality;  or  that  after  Hamilton's  re-cap- 
ture of  the  place,  they  were  unwilling  to  aid  the  English  in  maintaining  the  post 
against  Clark's  surprise  (February,  1779),  which  resulted  in  the  capture  of 
Hamilton  and  all  the  British  garrison.  After  this  event,  Vincennes  became 
part  of  the  Illinois  government,  until  the  organization  of  a  Northwest  Territory 
in  1787. —  ED. 


142  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

gold  and  silver  in  specie,  the  French  traders  extorted  ten 
half  Johannes114  from  them  for  one  pound  of  vermilion. 
Here  is  likewise  an  Indian  village  of  the  Pyankeshaws,115 
who  were  much  displeased  with  the  party  that  took  me, 
telling  them  that  "our  and  your  chiefs  are  gone  to  make 
peace,  and  you  have  begun  a  war,  for  which  our  women 
and  children  will  have  reason  to  cry."  From  this  post 
the  Indians  permitted  me  to  write  to  the  commander,  at 
Fort  Chartres,  but  would  not  suffer  me  to  write  to  any 
body  else,  (this  I  apprehend  was  a  precaution  of  the 
French,  lest  their  villany  should  be  perceived  too  soon,) 
although  the  Indians  had  given  me  permission  to  write 
to  Sir  William  Johnson  and  Fort  Pitt  on  our  march, 
before  we  arrived  at  this  place.  But  immediately  after 
our  arrival  they  had  a  private  council  with  the  French,  in 
which  the  Indians  urged,  (as  they  afterwards  informed  me,) 
that  as  the  French  had  engaged  them  in  so  bad  an  affair, 
which  was  likely  to  bring  a  war  on  their  nation,  they  now 
expected  a  proof  of  their  promise  and  assistance.  Then 
delivered  the  French  a  scalp  and  part  of  the  plunder,  and 
wanted  to  deliver  some  presents  to  the  Pyankeshaws,  but 
they  refused  to  accept  of  any,  and  declared  they  would  not 
be  concerned  in  the  affair.  This  last  information  I  got 
from  the  Pyankeshaws,  as  I  had  been  well  acquainted 
with  them  several  years  before  this  time. 

Port  Vincent  is  a  place  of  great  consequence  for  trade, 
being  a  fine  hunting  country  all  along  the  Ouabache,  and 
too  far  for  the  Indians,  which  reside  hereabouts,  to  go 

114  A  johannies  was  a  Portuguese  coin  current  in  America  about  this  time, 
worth  nearly  nine  dollars.     The  Indians,  therefore,  paid  over  forty  dollars  for 
their  pound  of  vermillion. —  ED. 

115  The  Piankeshaws  were  a  tribe  of  the  Miamis,  who  had  been  settled  near 
Vincennes  as  long  as  they  had  been  known  to  the  whites. —  ED. 


1765]  Croghan's  Journals  143 

either  to  the  Illinois,  or  elsewhere,  to  fetch  their  necessa- 
ries. 

1 6th. —  We  were  obliged  to  stay  here  to  get  some  little 
apparel  made  up  for  us,  and  to  buy  some  horses  for  our 
journey  to  Ouicatonon,  promising  payment  at  Detroit, 
for  we  could  not  procure  horses  from  the  French  for  hire; 
though  we  were  greatly  fatigued,  and  our  spirits  much 
exhausted  in  our  late  march,  they  would  lend  us  no  assis- 
tance. 

i yth. —  At  mid-day  we  set  out;  traveling  the  first  five 
miles  through  a  fine  thick  wood.  We  traveled  eighteen 
miles  this  day,  and  encamped  in  a  large,  beautiful,  well 
watered  meadow. 

1 8th  and  ipth. —  We  traveled  through  a  prodigious 
large  meadow,  called  the  Pyankeshaw's  Hunting  Ground: 
here  is  no  wood  to  be  seen,  and  the  country  appears  like 
an  ocean:  the  ground  is  exceedingly  rich,  and  partly 
overgrown  with  wild  hemp;  the  land  well  watered,  and 
full  of  buffalo,  deer,  bears,  and  all  kinds  of  wild  game. 

2oth  and  2ist. —  We  passed  through  some  very  large 
meadows,  part  of  which  belong  to  the  Pyankeshaws  on 
Vermilion  River;  the  country  and  soil  much  the  same  as 
that  we  traveled  over  for  these  three  days  past,  wild  hemp 
grows  here  in  abundance;  the  game  very  plenty:  at  any 
time,  in  half  an  hour  we  could  kill  as  much  as  we  wanted. 

22nd. —  We  passed  through  part  of  the  same  meadow 
as  mentioned  yesterday;  then  came  to  a  high  woodland, 
and  arrived  at  Vermilion  River,  so  called  from  a  fine  red 
earth  found  here  by  the  Indians,  with  which  they  paint 
themselves.  About  half  a  mile  from  the  place  where  we 
crossed  this  river,  there  is  a  village  of  Pyankeshaws,  dis- 
tinguished by  the  addition  of  the  name  of  the  river.  We 
then  traveled  about  three  hours,  through  a  clear  high 


144  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

woody  country,  but  a  deep  and  rich  soil;  then  came  to  a 
meadow,  where  we  encamped. 

23d. —  Early  in  the  morning  we  set  out  through  a  fine 
meadow,  then  some  clear  woods;  in  the  afternoon  came 
into  a  very  large  bottom  on  the  Ouabache,  within  six 
miles  of  Ouicatanon;  here  I  met  several  chiefs  of  the 
Kickapoos  and  Musquattimes,  who  spoke  to  their  young 
men  who  had  taken  us,  and  reprimanded  them  severely 
for  what  they  had  done  to  me,  after  which  they  returned 
with  us  to  their  village,  and  delivered  us  all  to  their  chiefs. 

The  distance  from  port  Vincent  to  Ouicatanon  is  two 
hundred  and  ten  miles.  This  place  is  situated  on  the 
Ouabache.  About  fourteen  French  families  are  living 
in  the  fort,  which  stands  on  the  north  side  of  the  river. 
The  Kickapoos  and  the  Musquattimes,  whose  warriors 
had  taken  us,  live  nigh  the  fort,  on  the  same  side  of  the 
river,  where  they  have  two  villages;  and  the  Ouicatanons 
have  a  village  on  the  south  side  of  the  river.  At  our 
arrival  at  this  post,  several  of  the  Wawcottonans,  (or 
Ouicatonans)  with  whom  I  had  been  formerly  acquainted, 
came  to  visit  me,  and  seemed  greatly  concerned  at  what 
had  happened.  They  went  immediately  to  the  Kicka- 
poos and  Musquattimes,  and  charged  them  to  take  the 
greatest  care  of  us,  till  their  chiefs  should  arrive  from  the 
Illinois,  where  they  were  gone  to  meet  me  some  time  ago, 
and  who  were  entirely  ignorant  of  this  affair,  and  said  the 
French  had  spirited  up  this  party  to  go  and  strike  us. 

The  French  have  a  great  influence  over  these  Indians, 
and  never  fail  in  telling  them  many  lies  to  the  prejudice 
of  his  majesty's  interest,  by  making  the  English  nation 
odious  and  hateful  to  them.  I  had  the  greatest  difficul- 
ties in  removing  these  prejudices.  As  these  Indians  are  a 
weak,  foolish,  and  credulous  people,  they  are  easily  im- 


1765]  Croghan's  Journals  145 

posed  on  by  a  designing  people,  who  have  led  them 
hitherto  as  they  pleased.  The  French  told  them  that 
as  the  southern  Indians  had  for  two  years  past  made  war 
on  them,  it  must  have  been  at  the  instigation  of  the  Eng- 
lish, who  are  a  bad  people.  However  I  have  been  fortu- 
nate enough  to  remove  their  prejudice,  and,  in  a  great 
measure,  their  suspicions  against  the  English.  The  coun- 
try hereabouts  is  exceedingly  pleasant,  being  open  and 
clear  for  many  miles;  the  soil  very  rich  and  well  watered; 
all  plants  have  a  quick  vegetation,  and  the  climate  very 
temperate  through  the  winter.  This  post  has  always  been 
a  very  considerable  trading  place.  The  great  plenty  of 
furs  taken  in  this  country,  induced  the  French  to  estab- 
lish this  post,  which  was  the  first  on  the  Ouabache,  and  by 
a  very  advantageous  trade  they  have  been  richly  recom- 
pensed for  their  labor. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  Ouabache  runs  a  big  bank,  in 
which  are  several  fine  coal  mines,  and  behind  this  bank, 
is  a  very  large  meadow,  clear  for  several  miles.  It  is 
surprising  what  false  information  we  have  had  respecting 
this  country:  some  mention  these  spacious  and  beautiful 
meadows  as  large  and  barren  savannahs.  I  apprehend 
it  has  been  the  artifice  of  the  French  to  keep  us  ignorant 
of  the  country.  These  meadows  bear  fine  wild  grass, 
and  wild  hemp  ten  or  twelve  feet  high,  which,  if  properly 
manufactured,  would  prove  as  good,  and  answer  all  the 
purposes  of  the  hemp  we  cultivate.116 

July  Ist —  A  Frenchman  arrived  from  the  Illinois  with 
a  Pipe  and  Speech  from  thence  to  the  Kickapoos  & 


116  The  entries  from  July  i  to  18,  inclusive,  are  here  inserted  from  the  second 
(or  official)  version  in  the  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  pp.  781,  782; 
hiatuses  therein,  are  supplied  from  the  Hildreth  version.  See  note  91,  ante, 
p.  126. —  ED. 


1 46  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Musquattamies,  to  have  me  Burnt,  this  Speech  was  said 
to  be  sent  from  a  Shawanese  Indn  who  resides  at  the 
Ilinois,  &  has  been  during  the  War,  &  is  much  attached 
to  the  French  interest.  As  soon  as  this  Speech  was  de- 
livered to  the  Indians  by  the  French,  the  Indians  informed 
me  of  it  in  Council,  &  expressed  their  great  concern  for 
what  had  already  happened,  &  told  me  they  then  sett  me 

&  my  people  at  liberty,  &  assured  me  they  despised  the 
message  sent  them,  and  would  return  the  Pipe  &  Belt  to 
their  Fathers  the  French,  and  enquire  into  the  reason  of 
such  a  message  being  sent  them  by  one  of  his  messengers, 

&  desired  me  to  stay  with  them  'till  the  Deputies  of  the 
Six  Nations,  Shawanese  &  Delawares  arrived  with  Pon- 
diac  at  Ouiatonon  in  order  to  settle  matters,  to  wh  I 
consented. 

From  4th  to  the  8th—  I  had  several  Conferences  with 
the  Wawiotonans,  Pyankeeshas,  Kickapoos  &  Musqua- 
tamies  in  which  Conferences  I  was  lucky  enough  to 
reconcile  those  Nations  to  his  Majesties  Interest  &  obtain 
their  Consent  and  Approbation  to  take  Possession  of  any 
Posts  in  their  country  which  the  French  formerly  possessed 
&  an  offer  of  their  service  should  any  Nation  oppose  our 
taking  possession  of  it,  all  which  they  confirmed  by  four 
large  Pipes. 

nth — Mr  Maisonville117  arrived  with  an  Interpreter  & 

117  Francois  Rivard  dit  Maisonville  was  a  member  of  one  of  the  first  families 
to  settle  Detroit.  He  entered  the  British  service  at  Fort  Pitt  as  an  interpreter, 
accompanying  Lieutenant  Fraser  to  the  Illinois  in  that  capacity.  In  1774, 
Maisonville  was  Indian  agent  on  the  Wabash  with  a  salary  of  £100  a,  year. 
When  George  Rogers  Clark  invaded  the  Illinois  country  (1778),  Maisonville 
carried  the  first  intelligence  of  this  incursion  to  Detroit.  The  next  year  General 
Hamilton  employed  him  on  his  advance  against  Vincennes;  but  on  Clark's 
approach  he  was  captured,  while  on  a  scouting  party,  and  cruelly  treated  by 
some  of  the  American  partisans.  He  made  one  of  the  party  sent  to  Virginia 
as  captives,  and  the  following  year  committed  suicide  in  prison. —  ED. 


1765]  Croghart s  "Journals  147 

a  message  to  the  Indians  to  bring  me  &  my  party  to  the 
Ilinois,  till  then  I  had  no  answer  from  Mr  St.  Ange  to 
the  letter  I  wrote  him  of  the  i6th  June,  as  I  wanted  to  go 
to  the  Ilinois,  I  desired  the  Chiefs  to  prepare  themselves  & 
set  off  with  me  as  soon  as  possible. 

12th—  I  wrote  to  General  Gage118  &  Sir  William  John- 
son, to  Col°  Campbell  at  Detroit,  &  Major  Murray  at 
Fort  Pitt  &  Major  Firmer  at  Mobiel  or  on  his  way  to 
the  Mississipi,119  &  acquainted  [them  with]  every  thing 
that  had  happened  since  my  departure  from  Ft.  Pitt. 

July  13th —  The  Chiefs  of  the  Twightwees  came  to  me 
from  the  Miamis  and  renewed  their  Antient  Friendship 
with  His  Majesty  &  all  his  Subjects  in  America  &  con- 
firmed it  with  a  Pipe. 

1 8th— I  set  off  for  the  Ilinois  with  the  Chiefs  of  all 
those  Nations  when  by  the  way  we  met  with  Pondiac 
together  with  the  Deputies  of  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares 
&  Shawanese,  which  accompanied  Mr  Frazier  &  myself 
down  the  Ohio  &  also  Deputies  with  speeches  from  the 

118  General  Thomas  Gage  was  at  this  time  British  commander-in-chief  in 
America,  with  headquarters  at  New  York.     Having  come  to  America  with 
Braddock,  he  served  on  this  continent  for  twenty  years,  in  numerous  important 
offices.     After  the  surrender  of  Montreal  he  was  made  governor  of  that  city 
and  province,  until  in  1763  he  superseded  Amherst  as  commander-in-chief,  in 
which  capacity  he  served  until  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution.     His  part  in 
the  initial  battles  of  that  conflict  about  Boston,  where  he  commanded,  is  a 
matter  of  general  history.     After  his  recall  to  England  his  subsequent  career 
was  uneventful.    He  died  as  Viscount  Gage  in  1787. —  ED. 

119  Major  William  Murray  of  the  42nd  infantry  succeeded  Colonel  Henry 
Bouquet  as  commandant  at  Fort  Pitt,  in  the  spring  of  1765. 

Major  Robert  Farmer  was  sent  to  receive  the  surrender  of  Mobile  in  1763. 
For  a  description  by  Aubry,  the  retiring  French  governor  of  Louisiana,  of 
Farmer's  character  and  manner,  see  Claiborne,  History  of  Mississippi  (Jack- 
son, 1880),  p.  104.  Late  in  this  year  that  Croghan  wrote  (1765),  Farmer 
ascended  the  Mississippi  with  a  detachment  of  the  34th  infantry,  and  took  over 
the  command  of  the  Illinois  from  Major  Sterling,  being  in  turn  relieved  (1767) 
by  Colonel  Edward  Cole.  Farmer  died  or  retired  from  the  army  in  1768. —  ED. 


148  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

four  Nations  living  in  the  Ilinois  Country  to  me  &  the 
Six  Nations,  Delawares  &  Shawanese,  on  which  we 
returned  to  Ouiatonon  and  there  held  another  conference, 
in  which  I  settled  all  matters  with  the  Ilinois  Indians  — 
Pondiac  &  they  agreeing  to  every  thing  the  other  Nations 
had  done,  all  which  they  confirmed  by  Pipes  &  Belts, 
but  told  me  the  French  had  informed  them  that  the  Eng- 
lish intended  to  take  their  Country  from  them,  &  give 
it  to  the  Cherokees  to  settle  on,  &  that  if  ever  they  suf- 
fered the  English  to  take  possession  of  their  Country 
they  would  make  slaves  of  them,  that  this  was  the  reason 
of  then*  Opposing  the  Englifh  hitherto  from  taking  pos- 
session of  Fort  Chartres  &  induced  them  to  tell  Mr.  La 
Gutrie  &  Mr  Sinnott120  that  they  would  not  let  the  Eng- 
lish come  into  their  Country.  But  being  informed  since 
Mr  Sinnott  had  retired  by  the  Deputies  of  the  Six  Na- 
tions, Delawares  &  Shawanese,  that  every  difference 
subsisting  between  them  &  the  English  was  now  set- 
tled, they  were  willing  to  comply  as  the  other  Nations 
their  Brethren  had  done  and  desired  that  their  Father  the 
King  of  England  might  not  look  upon  his  taking  posses- 
sion of  the  Forts  which  the  French  had  formerly  possest 
as  a  title  for  his  subjects  to  possess  their  Country,  as  they 
never  had  sold  any  part  of  it  to  the  French,  &  that  I 
might  rest  satisfied  that  whenever  the  English  came  to 
take  possession  they  would  receive  them  with  open  arms. 
July  2$th.™ — We  set  out  from  this  place  (after  set- 

120  La  Guthrie  was  the  interpreter  sent  with  Lieutenant  Fraser.     Sinnott 
was  a  deputy-agent  sent  out  by  Stuart,  agent  for  the  Southern  department  to 
attempt  conciliation  in  the  Illinois.     His  stores  had  been  plundered,  and  he 
himself  having  escaped  with  difficulty  from  Fort  Chartres,  sought  refuge  at 
New  Orleans.     See  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  pp.  765,  776. —  ED. 

121  We  here  again  resume  the  first  (Featherstonhaugh-Butler)  version  of  the 
journal,  which  continues  through  August  17. —  ED. 


1765]  Crogharfs  Journals  149 

tling  all  matters  happily  with  the  natives)  for  the  Miames, 
and  traveled  the  whole  way  through  a  fine  rich  bottom, 
overgrown  with  wild  hemp,  alongside  the  Ouabache,  till 
we  came  to  Eel  River,  where  we  arrived  the  27th.  About 
six  miles  up  this  river  is  a  small  village  of  the  Twightwee, 
situated  on  a  very  delightful  spot  of  ground  on  the  bank 
of  the  river.  The  Eel  River  heads  near  St.  Joseph's,  and 
runs  nearly  parallel  to  the  Miames,  and  at  some  few  miles 
distance  from  it,  through  a  fine,  pleasant  country,  and 
after  a  course  of  about  one  hundred  and  eighty  miles 
empties  itself  into  the  Ouabache. 

28th,  29th,  3oth  and  3ist. —  We  traveled  still  along  side 
the  Eel  River,  passing  through  fine  clear  woods,  and  some 
good  meadows,  though  not  so  large  as  those  we  passed 
some  days  before.  The  country  is  more  overgrown  with 
woods,  the  soil  is  sufficiently  rich,  and  well  watered  with 
springs. 

August  ist. —  We  arrived  at  the  carrying  place  between 
the  River  Miames  and  the  Ouabache,  which  is  about  nine 
miles  long  in  dry  seasons,  but  not  above  half  that  length 
in  freshes.  The  head  of  the  Ouabache  is  about  forty 
miles  from  this  place,  and  after  a  course  of  about  seven 
hundred  and  sixty  miles  from  the  head  spring,  through 
one  of  the  finest  countries  in  the  world,  it  empties  itself 
into  the  Ohio.  The  navigation  from  hence  to  Ouicatanon, 
is  very  difficult  in  low  water,  on  account  of  many  rapids 
and  rifts;  but  in  freshes,  which  generally  happen  in  the 
spring  and  fall,  batteaux  or  canoes  will  pass,  without 
difficulty,  from  here  to  Ouicatanon  in  three  days,  which 
is  about  two  hundred  and  forty  miles,  and  by  land  about 
two  hundred  and  ten  miles.  From  Ouicatanon  to  Port 
Vincent,  and  thence  to  the  Ohio,  batteaux  and  canoes  may 
go  at  any  season  of  the  year.  Throughout  the  whole 


150  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

course  of  the  Ouabache  the  banks  are  pretty  high,  and  in 
the  river  are  a  great  many  islands.  Many  shrubs  and 
trees  are  found  here  unknown  to  us. 

Within  a  mile  of  the  Twightwee  village,  I  was  met  by 
the  chiefs  of  that  nation,  who  received  us  very  kindly. 
The  most  part  of  these  Indians  knew  me,  and  conducted 
me  to  their  village,  where  they  immediately  hoisted  an 
English  flag  that  I  had  formerly  given  them  at  Fort  Pitt. 
The  next  day  they  held  a  council,  after  which  they  gave 
me  up  all  the  English  prisoners  they  had,  then  made 
several  speeches,  in  all  which  they  expressed  the  great 
pleasure  it  gave  them,  to  see  the  unhappy  differences 
which  embroiled  the  several  nations  in  a  war  with  their 
brethren,  the  English,  were  now  so  near  a  happy  con- 
clusion, and  that  peace  was  established  in  their  country. 

The  Twightwee  village  is  situated  on  both  sides  of  a 
river,  called  St.  Joseph's.  This  river,  where  it  falls  into 
the  Miame  river,  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  this 
place,  is  one  hundred  yards  wide,  on  the  east  side  of  which 
stands  a  stockade  fort,  somewhat  ruinous. 

The  Indian  village  consists  of  about  forty  or  fifty 
cabins,  besides  nine  or  ten  French  houses,  a  runaway 
colony  from  Detroit,  during  the  late  Indian  war;  they 
were  concerned  in  it,  and  being  afraid  of  punishment, 
came  to  this  post,  where  ever  since  they  have  spirited 
up  the  Indians  against  the  English.  All  the  French 
residing  here  are  a  lazy,  indolent  people,  fond  of  breeding 
mischief,  and  spiriting  up  the  Indians  against  the  Eng- 
lish, and  should  by  no  means  be  suffered  to  remain  here. 
The  country  is  pleasant,  the  soil  rich  and  well  watered. 
After  several  conferences  with  these  Indians,  and  their 
delivering  me  up  all  the  English  prisoners  they  had,  — 
[blank  space  in  MS.] 


1765]  Croghan's  Journals  151 

On  the  6th  of  August  we  set  out  for  Detroit,  down  the 
Miames  river  in  a  canoe.  This  river  heads  about  ten 
miles  from  hence.  The  river  is  not  navigable  till  you 
come  where  the  river  St.  Joseph  joins  it,  and  makes  a 
considerably  large  stream.  Nevertheless  we  found  a 
great  deal  of  difficulty  in  getting  our  canoe  over  shoals, 
as  the  waters  at  this  season  were  very  low.  The  banks 
of  the  river  are  high,  and  the  country  overgrown  with 
lofty  timber  of  various  kinds;  the  land  is  level,  and  the 
woods  clear.  About  ninety  miles  from  the  Miames  or 
Twightwee,  we  came  to  where  a  large  river,  that  heads 
in  a  large  lick,  falls  into  the  Miame  river;  this  they  call 
the  Forks.122  The  Ottawas  claim  this  country,  and  hunt 
here,  where  game  is  very  plenty.  From  hence  we  pro- 
ceeded to  the  Ottawa  village.  This  nation  formerly  lived 
at  Detroit,  but  is  now  settled  here,  on  account  of  the 
richness  of  the  country,  where  game  is  always  to  be  found 
in  plenty.  Here  we  were  obliged  to  get  out  of  our  canoes, 
and  drag  them  eighteen  miles,  on  account  of  the  rifts 
which  interrupt  the  navigation.123  At  the  end  of  these 
rifts,  we  came  to  a  village  of  the  Wyondotts,  who  received 
us  very  kindly  and  from  thence  we  proceeded  to  the 
mouth  of  the  river,  where  it  falls  into  Lake  Erie.  From 
the  Miames  to  the  lake  is  computed  one  hundred  and 
eighty  miles,  and  from  the  entrance  of  the  river  into  the 
lake  to  Detroit,  is  sixty  miles;  that  is,  forty-two  miles  up 

122  This  is  the  Auglaize  River.     On  the  site  called  the  Forks,  Wayne  built 
Fort  Defiance  during  his  campaign  against  the  Indians  (1794). — ED. 

123  The  rapids  of  the  Maumee  were  famous  in  the  later  Indian  wars.     There, 
in  1794,  the  British  built  Fort  Miami,  almost  within  the  reach  of  whose  guns 
Wayne  fought  the  battle  of  Fallen  Timbers.     Fort  Meigs  Was  the  American 
stockade  built  here  during  the  War  of  1812-15;  and  this  vicinity  was  the  scene 
of  operations  during  all  the  Western  campaigns  ending  with  Perry's  victory  on 
Lake  Erie,  and  the  re-taking  of  Detroit. —  ED. 


152  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

the  lake,  and  eighteen  miles  up  the  Detroit  river  to  the 
garrison  of  that  name.  The  land  on  the  lake  side  is  low 
and  flat.  We  passed  several  large  rivers  and  bays,  and 
on  the  1 6th  of  August,  in  the  afternoon,  we  arrived  at 
Detroit  river.  The  country  here  is  much  higher  than 
on  the  lake  side;  the  river  is  about  nine  hundred  yards 
wide,  and  the  current  runs  very  strong.  There  are  several 
fine  and  large  islands  in  this  river,  one  of  which  is  nine 
miles  long;  its  banks  high,  and  the  soil  very  good. 

1 7th. —  In  the  morning  we  arrived  at  the  fort,  which 
is  a  large  stockade,  inclosing  about  eighty  houses,  it 
stands  close  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  on  a  high  bank, 
commands  a  very  pleasant  prospect  for  nine  miles  above, 
and  nine  miles  below  the  fort;  the  country  is  thick  settled 
with  French,  their  plantations  are  generally  laid  out  about 
three  or  four  acres  in  breadth  on  the  river,  and  eighty 
acres  in  depth;  the  soil  is  good,  producing  plenty  of 
grain.  All  the  people  here  are  generally  poor  wretches, 
and  consist  of  three  or  four  hundred  French  families,  a 
lazy,  idle  people,  depending  chiefly  on  the  savages  for 
their  subsistence;  though  the  land,  with  little  labor,  pro- 
duces plenty  of  grain,  they  scarcely  raise  as  much  as  will 
supply  their  wants,  in  imitation  of  the  Indians,  whose 
manners  and  customs  they  have  entirely  adopted,  and 
cannot  subsist  without  them.  The  men,  women,  and 
children  speak  the  Indian  tongue  perfectly  well.  In  the 
last  Indian  war  the  most  part  of  the  French  were  con- 
cerned in  it,  (although  the  whole  settlement  had  taken 
the  oath  of  allegiance  to  his  Britannic  Majesty)  they 
have,  therefore,  great  reason  to  be  thankful  to  the  Eng- 
lish clemency  in  not  bringing  them  to  deserved  punish- 
ment. Before  the  late  Indian  war  there  resided  three 
nations  of  Indians  at  this  place:  the  Putawatimes,  whose 


1765]  Crogharis  Journals  153 

village  was  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  about  one  mile 
below  the  fort;  the  Ottawas,  on  the  east  side,  about  three 
miles  above  the  Fort;  and  the  Wyondotts,  whose  village 
lies  on  the  east  side,  about  two  miles  below  the  fort. 
The  former  two  nations  have  removed  to  a  considerable 
distance,  and  the  latter  still  remain  where  they  were,  and 
are  remarkable  for  their  good  sense  and  hospitality. 
They  have  a  particular  attachment  to  the  Roman  Catholic 
religion,  the  French,  by  their  priests,  having  taken  uncom- 
mon pains  to  instruct  them. 

During  my  stay  here,  I  held  frequent  conferences  with 
the  different  nations  of  Indians  assembled  at  this  place, 
with  whom  I  settled  matters  to  their  general  satisfaction. 

August  i7th124 — I  arrived  at  Detroit  where  I  found 
several  small  Tribes  of  Ottawas,  Puttewatamies  & 
Chipwas  waiting  in  Consequence  of  Col°  Bradstreets 
Invitation  to  see  him.125  Here  I  met  Mr  DeCouagne  and 

124  All  that  follows,  until  the  conclusion  of  the  Indian  speeches,  is  inserted 
from  the  second  (official)  version  of  the  journals,  found  in  the  New  York  Colo- 
nial Documents)  vii,  pp.  781-787. —  ED. 

125  Although  English  born,  Colonel  John  Bradstreet  lived  all  his  mature  life 
in  America,  and  distinguished    himself  for  his  military  services  in  the  later 
French  wars.     He  was  in  the  campaign  against  Louisburg  (1745),  and  was 
promoted  for  gallantry,  and  given  the  governorship  of  St.  John's,  Newfound- 
land.    The  outbreak  of  the  French  and  Indian  War  found  him  at  Oswego, 
where  with  great  bravery  he  drove  the  French  back  from  an  attack  on  a  convoy 
(1756).     On  the  organization  of  the  Royal  Americans,   Bradstreet  became 
lieutenant-colonel,  and  served  with  Abercrombie  at  Ticonderoga  (1758).     His 
most  renowned  exploit  was  the  capture,  the  same  year,  of  Fort  Frontenac, 
which  severed  the  connection  between  Canada  and  its  Western  dependencies. 
After  the  close  of  the  war,  Bradstreet  received  a  colonelcy.     When  the  news 
of  Pontiac's  uprising  reached  the  East,  he  was  detailed  to  make  an  expedition 
into  the  Indian  territory  by  way  of  Lake  Erie.     His  confidence  in  Indian  prom- 
ises proved  too  great;  he  made  peace  with  the  very  tribes  who  went  murdering 
and  scalping  along  the  frontiers  as  soon  as  his  army  had  passed.     Bradstreet 
was  made  a  major-general  in  1772;  but  two  years  later,  died  in  the  city  of  New 
York.     The  Indians  whom  Croghan  found  at  Detroit  were  small  bands  from 
the  north  and  west,  who  had  not  received  Bradstreet' s  message,  in  time  to 
attend  before  that  officer's  departure  from  Detroit. —  ED. 


154  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Wabecomicat  with  a  Deputation  of  Indians  from  Niagara, 
with  Messages  from  Sir  William  Johnson  to  Pondiac  & 
those  Western  Nations.126 

23d—  Colo  Campbell127  &  I  had  a  Meeting  with  the 
Twightwees,  Wawiotonans,  Pyankeshas,  Kickapoos  and 
Musquattamies,  when  they  produced  the  several  Belts 
sent  them  by  Col°  Bradstreet,  in  consequence  of  which 
Invitation  they  came  here. 

Then  they  spoake  to  the  Six  Nations  Delawares  & 
Shawanese  on  several  Belts  &  Pipes,  beging  in  the  most 
abject  manner  that  they  would  forgive  them  for  the  ill 
conduct  of  their  Young  Men,  to  take  Pity  on  their  Women 
&  Children  &  grant  ym  peace. 

They  then  spoake  to  the  Col°  &  me  on  several  Pipes  & 
Belts  Expressing  their  great  satisfaction  at  a  firm  and  last- 
ing Peace  settled  between  their  Bretheren  the  English,  & 
the  several  Indian  Nations  in  this  Country,  that  they  saw 
the  heavy  Clouds  that  hung  over  then*  heads  for  some 
time  past  were  now  dispersed,  and  that  the  Sun  shone 
clear  &  bright,  &  that  as  their  Father  the  King  of  Eng- 
land had  conquered  the  French  in  that  [this]  Country  & 
taken  into  his  Friendship  all  the  Indian  Nations,  they 
hoped  for  the  future  they  would  be  a  happy  people,  & 
that  they  should  always  have  reason  to  call  the  English 
their  Fathers  &  beged  we  would*  take  pity  on  their 

m  In  the  Hildreth  version  these  names  are  spelled  "Duquanee"  and  "Wao- 
becomica."  The  former  was  a  Detroit  habitant  Dequindre,  who  had  brought 
messages  from  the  Illinois  to  Pontiac  during  the  siege  of  Detroit.  Waobecomica 
was  a  Missassaga  chief,  well-affected  toward  the  English,  whom  Johnson  had 
sent  in  the  spring  of  1765  with  messages  to  Pontiac.  See  New  York  Colonial 
Documents,  vii,  p.  747. —  ED. 

m  This  was  Lieutenant-colonel  Alexander  Campbell,  formerly  commander 
of  the  95th  regiment,  who  succeeded  Major  Gladwin  in  command  of  Detroit 
(1764).  He  is  not  to  be  confused  with  Captain  Donald  Campbell,  the  earlier 
commandant,  who  was  killed  by  the  Indians  during  Pontiac's  conspiracy. —  ED. 


1765]  Croghan's  Journals  155 

Women  &  Children,  &  make  up  the  difference  subsist- 
ing between  them  and  the  Shawanese,  Delawares  &  Six 
Nations,  and  said  as  they  were  come  here  in  consequence  of 
Col°  Bradstreet's  Invitation,  &  that  he  had  not  met  them 
they  hoped  their  Fathers  would  pity  their  necessity  & 
give  them  a  little  clothing,  and  a  little  rum  to  drink  on  the 
road,  as  they  had  come  a  great  way  to  see  their  Fathers. 
Then  the  Wyondats  spoake  to  the  Shawanese,  &  all  the 
Western  Nations  on  severall  Belts  &  strings,  by  which 
they  exhorted  the  several  Nations  to  behave  themselves 
well  to  their  Fathers  the  English,  who  had  now  taken 
them  under  their  Protection,  that  if  they  did,  they  would 
be  a  happy  People,  that  if  they  did  not  listen  to  the  Coun- 
cils of  their  Fathers,  they  must  take  the  Consequences, 
having  assured  them  that  all  Nations  to  the  Sun  rising 
had  taken  fast  hold  of  their  Fathers  the  English  by  the 
hand,  &  would  follow  their  Advice,  &  do  every  thing  they 
desired  them,  &  never  would  let  slip  the  Chain  of  Friend- 
ship now  so  happily  renewed. 

August  24th — We  had  another  Meeting  with  the 
Several  Nations,  when  the  Wawiotonans,  Twightwees, 
Pyankeshas,  Kickapoos  &  Musquatamies  made  several 
speeches  to  Col°  Campbell  &  me,  in  presence  of  all  the 
other  Nations,  when  they  promised  to  become  the  Chil- 
dren of  the  King  of  Great  Britain  &  farther  acknowledged 
that  they  had  at  Ouiatonon  before  they  came  there  [here] 
given  up  the  Soverignty  of  their  Country  to  me  for  His 
Majesty,  &  promised  to  support  his  subjects  in  taking 
possession  of  all  the  Posts  given  up  by  the  French  their 
former  Fathers,  to  the  English,  now  their  present  Fathers, 
all  which  they  confirmed  with  a  Belt. 

25th —  We  had  another  meeting  with  the  same  Indians, 
when  Col°  Campbell  &  I  made  them  several  speeches  in 


156  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

answer  to  theirs  of  the  23  &  24th  then  delivered  them  a 
Road  Belt  in  the  name  of  Sir  William  Johnson  Baronet, 
to  open  a  Road  from  the  rising  to  the  setting  of  the  Sun 
which  we  charged  them  to  keep  open  through  their 
Country  &  cautioned  them  to  stop  their  Ears  against  the 
Storys  or  idle  reports  of  evil  minded  People  &  continue 
to  promote  the  good  Works  of  Peace,  all  which  they  prom- 
ised to  do  in  a  most  sincere  manner. 

26th — Col°  Campbell  &  I  made  those  Nations  some 
presents,  when  after  taking  leave  of  us,  they  sett  off  for 
their  own  Country  well  satisfied. 

27th — We  had  a  Meeting  with  Pondiac  &  all  the 
Ottawa  Tribes,  Chipwaes  &  Puttewatamies  wth  the 
Hurons  of  this  Place  &  the  chiefs  of  those  settled  at 
Sandusky  &  the  Miamis  River,  when  we  made  them  the 
following  Speeches. 

CHILDREN  PONDIAC  &  ALL  OUR  CHILDREN  THE  OTTA- 
WAS,  PUTTEWATAMIES,  CHIPWAYS  &  WYONDATTS:  We 
are  very  glad  to  see  so  many  of  our  Children  here  present 
at  your  Antient  Council  Fire,  which  has  been  neglected 
for  some  time  past,  since  those  high  winds  has  arose  & 
raised  some  heavy  clouds  over  your  Country,  I  now  by 
this  Belt  dress  up  your  Antient  Fire  &  throw  some  dry 
wood  upon  it,  that  the  blaze  may  ascend  to  the  Clouds  so 
that  all  Nations  may  see  it,  &  know  that  you  live  in 
Peace  &  Tranquility  with  your  Fathers  the  English. —  A 
Belt. 

By  this  Belt  I  disperse  all  the  black  clouds  from  over 
your  heads,  that  the  Sun  may  shine  clear  on  your  Women 
and  Children,  that  those  unborn  may  enjoy  the  blessings 
of  this  General  Peace,  now  so  happily  settled  between 
your  Fathers  the  English  &  you  &  all  your  younger 
Bretheren  to  the  Sun  setting. —  A  Belt. 


1765]  Crogharis  Journals  157 

Children:  By  this  Belt  I  gather  up  all  the  Bones  of 
your  deceased  friends,  &  bury  them  deep  in  the  ground, 
that  the  herbs  &  sweet  flowers  of  the  earth  may  grow 
over  them,  that  we  may  not  see  them  any  more. —  A  Belt. 

Children:  with  this  Belt  I  take  the  Hatchet  out  of 
your  Hands  &  I  pluck  up  a  large  tree  &  bury  it  deep,  so 
that  it  may  never  be  found  any  more,  &  I  plant  the  tree 
of  Peace,  where  all  our  children  may  sit  under  &  smoak 
in  Peace  with  their  Fathers. —  A  Belt. 

Children:  We  have  made  a  Road  from  the  Sun  rising 
to  the  Sun  setting,  I  desire  that  you  will  preserve  that 
Road  good  and  pleasant  to  Travel  upon,  that  we  may  all 
share  the  blessings  of  this  happy  Union.  I  am  sorry  to 
see  our  Children  dispersed  thro'  the  Woods,  I  therefore 
desire  you  will  return  to  your  Antient  Settlements  &  take 
care  of  your  Council  Fire  which  I  have  now  dressed  up,  & 
promote  the  good  work  of  Peace. —  A  Belt. 

After  which  Wapicomica  delivered  his  Messages  from 
Sir  William  Johnson  to  Pondiac  &  the  rest  of  the  several 
Chiefs. 

Aug.  28th — We  had  a  Meeting  with  Pondiac  &  the  sev- 
eral Nations  when  Pondiac  made  the  following  Speeches. 

FATHER:  We  have  all  smoaked  out  of  the  Pipe  of 
Peace  its  your  Childrens  Pipe  &  as  the  War  is  all  over,  & 
the  Great  Spirit  and  Giver  of  Light  who  has  made  the 
Earth  &  every  thing  therein,  has  brought  us  all  together 
this  day  for  our  mutual  good  to  promote  the  good  Works 
of  Peace,  I  declare  to  all  Nations  that  I  had  settled  my 
Peace  with  you  before  I  came  here,  &  now  deliver  my 
Pipe  to  be  sent  to  Sir  William  Johnson  that  he  may  know 
I  have  made  Peace,  &  taken  the  King  of  England  for  my 
Father,  in  presence  of  all  the  Nations  now  assembled,  & 
whenever  any  of  those  Nations  go  to  visit  him,  they  may 


158  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

smoak  out  of  it  with  him  in  Peace.  Fathers  we  are 
oblidged  to  you  for  lighting  up  our  old  Council  Fire  for 
us,  &  desiring  us  to  return  to  it,  but  we  are  now  settled 
on  the  Miamis  River,  not  far  from  hence,  whenever  you 
want  us  you  will  find  us  there  ready  to  wait  on  you,  the 
reason  I  choose  to  stay  where  we  are  now  settled,  is, 
that  we  love  liquor,  and  did  we  live  here  as  formerly,  our 
People  would  be  always  drunk,  which  might  occasion 
some  quarrels  between  the  Soldiers  &  them,  this  Father 
is  all  the  reason  I  have  for  not  returning  to  our  old  Settle- 
ments, &  that  we  live  so  nigh  this  place,  that  when  we 
want  to  drink,  we  can  easily  come  for  it. —  Gave  a  large 
Pipe  with  a  Belt  of  Wampum  tied  to  it. 

FATHER:  Be  strong  and  take  pity  on  us  your  Children 
as  our  former  Father  did,  'tis  just  the  Hunting  Season  of 
our  children,  our  Fathers  the  French  formerly  used  to 
credit  his  Children  for  powder  &  lead  to  hunt  with,  I 
request  in  behalf  of  all  the  Nations  present  that  you  will 
speak  to  the  Traders  now  here  to  do  the  same,  my  Father, 
once  more  I  request  you  will  take  pity  on  us  &  tell  your 
Traders  to  give  your  Children  credit  for  a  little  powder  & 
lead,  as  the  support  of  our  Family's  depend  upon  it,  we 
have  told  you  where  we  live,  that  whenever  you  want  us  & 
let  us  know  it,  we  will  come  directly  to  you. —  A  Belt. 

FATHER:  You  stoped  up  the  Rum  Barrel  when  we 
came  here,  'till  the  Business  of  this  Meeting128  was  over, 


128  There  were  present  at  this  treaty  about  thirty  chiefs  and  five  hundred 
warriors.  A  list  of  the  tribes  is  given,  and  the  names  of  the  chiefs.  This  was 
the  last  public  transaction  in  which  Pondiac  was  engaged  with  the  English. 
The  year  following,  in  a  council  with  the  Indians  on  the  Illinois,  this  noted 
chief  was  stabbed  to  the  heart,  by  an  Indian  who  had  long  followed  him  for  that 
purpose. —  HILDRETH. 

Comment  by  Ed. —  Hildreth  is  mistaken  in  calling  this  the  last  public  tran- 
saction of  Pontiac.  He  was  at  Oswego  and  treated  with  Johnson  in  the  spring 
of  1766.  See  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  pp.  854-867. 


1765]  Grogharis  Journals  159 

as  it  is  now  finished,  we  request  you  may  open  the  barrel 
that  your  Children  may  drink  &  be  merry. 

August  29th — A  Deputation  of  several  Nations  sett 
out  from  Detroit  for  the  Ilinois  Country  with  several 
Messages  from  me  &  the  Wyondats,  Six  Nations,  Dela- 
wares,  Shawanese  &  other  Nations,  in  answer  to  theirs 
delivered  me  at  Ouiatonon. 

3oth —  The  Chiefs  of  the  several  Nations  who  are  set- 
tled on  the  Ouabache  returned  to  Detroit  from  the  River 
Roche,  where  they  had  been  encamped,  &  informed 
Col°  Campbell  &  me,  they  were  now  going  off  for  their 
own  Country,  &  that  nothing  gave  them  greater  pleasure, 
than  to  see  that  all  the  Western  Nations  &  Tribes  had 
agreed  to  a  general  Peace,  &  that  they  should  be  glad  [to 
know]  how  soon  their  Fathers  the  English,  would  take 
possession  of  the  Posts  in  their  Country,  formerly  pos- 
sessed by  their  late  Fathers  the  French,  to  open  a 
Trade  for  them,  &  if  this  could  not  be  done  this  Fall, 
they  desired  that  some  Traders  might  be  sent  to  their 
Villages  to  supply  them  for  the  Winter,  or  else  they 
would  be  oblidged  to  go  to  the  Ilinois  and  apply  to  their 
old  Fathers  the  French  for  such  necessarys  as  they  might 
want. 

They  then  spoke  on  a  Belt  &  said  Fathers,  every  thing 
is  now  settled,  &  we  have  agreed  to  your  taking  possession 
of  the  posts  in  our  Country,  we  have  been  informed, 
that  the  English  where  ever  they  settle,  make  the  Coun- 
try their  own,  &  you  tell  us  that  when  you  conquered  the 
French  they  gave  you  this  Country. —  That  no  difference 
may  happen  hereafter,  we  tell  you  now  the  French  never 
conquered  us  neither  did  they  purchase  a  foot  of  our 
Country,  nor  have  they  a  right  to  give  it  to  you,  we  gave 
them  liberty  to  settle  for  which  they  always  rewarded  us, 


160  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

&  treated  us  with  great  Civility  while  they  had  it  in  their 
power,  but  as  they  are  become  now  your  people,  if  you 
expect  to  keep  these  Posts,  we  will  expect  to  have  proper 
returns  from  you. —  A  Belt. 

Septbr  2d  —  The  chiefs  of  the  Wyondatts  or  Huron,  came 
to  me  &  said  they  had  spoke  last  Summer  to  Sir  Willm 
Johnson  at  Niagara  about  the  lands,  on  which  the  French 
had  settled  near  Detroit  belonging  to  them,  &  desired 
I  would  mention  again  to  him.  they  never  had  sold  it 
to  the  French,  &  expected  their  new  Fathers  the  English 
would  do  them  justice,  as  the  French  were  become  one 
People  with  us. —  A  Belt. 

4th  —  Pondiac  with  several  chiefs  of  the  Ottawas, 
Chippawaes  &  Potowatamies  likewise  complained  that 
the  French  had  settled  part  of  their  country,  which  they 
never  had  sold  to  them,  &  hoped  their  Fathers  the 
English  would  take  it  into  Consideration,  &  see  that  a 
proper  satisfaction  was  made  to  them.  That  their 
Country  was  very  large,  &  they  were  willing  to  give  up 
such  part  of  it,  as  was  necessary  for  their  Fathers  the 
English,  to  carry  on  Trade  at,  provided  they  were  paid 
for  it,  &  a  sufficient  part  of  the  Country  left  them  to  hunt 
on.—  A  Belt. 

6th  —  The  Sagina  Indians  came  here,129&  made  a 
speech  on  a  Belt  of  Wampum  expressing  their  satisfac- 
tion on  hearing  that  a  general  Peace  was  made  with  all 
the  Western  Nations  &  with  Pondiac,  they  desired  a 
little  Powder,  Lead  &  a  few  knives  to  enable  them  to 

129  The  Saginaw  Indians  were  a  notoriously  turbulent  band  of  Chippewas, 
who  had  a  village  on  Saginaw  Bay.  They  had  assisted  in  the  siege  of  Detroit; 
and  going  to  Mackinac  to  secure  recruits  to  continue  their  resistance,  they 
attempted  to  kill  the  trader  Alexander  Henry.  See  Bain  (ed.),  Henry's  Travels 
and  Adventures  (Boston,  1901),  pp.  148-152,  an  admirably- edited  work,  con- 
taining much  valuable  information. —  ED. 


1765]  Croghans  Journals  161 

hunt  on  their  way  home,  &  a  little  rum  to  drink  their  new 
Fathers  health.—  A  Belt. 

9th  —  Altewaky  and  Chamindiway  Chiefs  of  a  Band 
of  Ottawas  from  Sandusky  with  20  Men  came  here  and 
informed  me  that  their  late  conduct  had  been  peaceable, 
that  on  hearing  there  was  a  great  Meeting  of  all  Nations 
at  this  place,  they  came  to  hear  what  would  be  done,  & 
on  their  way  here  they  had  been  informed  that  a  General 
Peace  was  settled  with  all  Nations  to  the  Sun  setting,  & 
they  now  came  to  assure  us  of  their  attachment  to  the 
English  Interest,  &  beged  for  some  Powder,  Lead, 
some  Blankets  and  a  little  rum  to  help  them  to  return  to 
their  town.  A  String. 

Septbr  nth  —  Col°  Campbell  &  I  gave  the  above  par- 
ties some  presents  &  a  little  rum  &  sent  them  away  well 
satisfied. 

12th  —  The  Grand  Sautois130  came  with  his  band  and 
spoke  as  follows. 

FATHER:  You  sent  me  a  Belt  from  the  Miamis,  & 
as  soon  as  I  received  it,  I  set  off  to  meet  you  here,  on  my 
way  I  heard  what  had  past  between  you  &  the  several 
Tribes  that  met  you  here,  you  have  had  pity  on  them,  & 
I  beg  in  behalf  of  myself  &  the  people  of  Chicago  that 
you  will  have  pity  on  us  also,  'tis  true  we  have  been 
Fools,  &  have  listened  to  evil  reports,  &  the  whistling 
of  bad  birds,  we  red  people,  are  a  very  jealous  and  foolish 
people,  &  Father  amongst  you  White  People,  there  are 
bad  people  also,  that  tell  us  lyes  &  deceive  us,  which  has 

130  According  to  Parkman,  Le  Grand  Sauteur  was  Pontiac's  chief  coadjutor 
among  the  northern  Indians  in  his  attack  on  the  English.  His  Indian  name 
was  Minavavana,  and  he  was  considered  the  author  of  the  plot  against  Mackinac. 
This  has  been  since  attributed  to  Match-e-ke-wis,  a  younger  Indian;  but  Le 
Grand  Sauteur  remained  an  inveterate  enemy  of  the  English,  and  was  at  length 
stabbed  by  an  English  trader.  See  Henry,  Travels,  pp.  42-47. —  ED. 


1 62  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

been  the  occasion  of  what  has  past,  I  need  not  say  much 
on  this  head,  I  am  now  convinced,  that  I  have  been 
wrong  for  some  years  past,  but  there  are  people  who 
have  behaved  worse  than  I  &  my  people,  they  were  par- 
doned last  year  at  this  place,  I  hope  we  may  meet  with 
the  same,  that  our  Women  &  Children  may  enjoy  the 
blessings  of  peace  as  the  rest  of  our  Bretheren  the  red 
people,  &  you  shall  be  convinced  by  our  future  conduct 
that  we  will  behave  as  well  as  any  Tribe  of  Inds  in  this 
Country.—  A  Belt. 

He  then  said  that  the  St.  Joseph  Indians  would  have 
come  along  with  him,  but  the  English  Prisoner  which 
their  Fathers  want  from  them,  was  some  distance  off  a 
hunting,  &  as  soon  as  they  could  get  him  in,  they  would 
deliver  him  up  and  desire  forgiveness. 

14th  —  I  had  a  private  meeting  with  the  grand  Sautois 
when  he  told  me  he  was  well  disposed  for  peace  last  Fall, 
but  was  then  sent  for  to  the  Ilinois,  where  he  met  with 
Pondiac,  &  that  then  their  Fathers  the  French  told 
them,  if  they  would  be  strong  to  keep  the  English  out  of 
possession  of  that  Country  but  this  Summer,  That  the 
King  of  France  would  send  over  an  Army  next  Spring,  to 
assist  his  Children  the  Indians,  and  that  the  King  of 
Spain  would  likewise  send  troops  to  help  them  to  keep 
the  English  out  of  their  Country,  that  the  English  were  a 
bad  people,  &  had  a  design  to  cut  off  all  the  Indian 
Nations  in  this  Country,  &  to  bring  the  Southern  Indians 
to  live  &  settle  there,  this  account  made  all  the  Indians 
very  uneasy  in  their  minds,  &  after  holding  a  Council 
amongst  themselves,  they  all  determined  to  oppose  the 
English,  &  not  to  suffer  them  to  take  Possession  of  the 
Ilinois,  that  for  his  part  he  behaved  as  ill  as  the  rest  to 
the  English  Officers  that  came  there  in  the  Spring,  but 


1765]  Crogharis  ^Journals  163 

since  he  had  been  better  informed  of  the  goodness  of  the 
English,  &  convinced  the  French  had  told  lyes  for  the 
love  of  their  Beaver,  he  was  now  determined  with  all  his 
people  to  become  faithfull  to  their  new  Fathers  the  Eng- 
lish, &  pay  no  regard  to  any  stories  the  French  should 
tell  him  for  the  future. 

Sepr  15th  — Col°  Campbell  &  I  had  a  meeting  with 
the  Grand  Sautois,  at  which  we  informed  him  of  every 
thing  that  had  past  with  the  several  Nations  &  Tribes  & 
told  him  that  we  accepted  him  and  his  people  in  Friend- 
ship, &  would  forgive  them  as  we  had  the  rest  of  the 
Tribes,  &  forget  what  was  past  provided  their  future 
conduct  should  convince  us  of  their  sincerity,  after  which 
we  gave  them  some  presents,  for  which  he  returned 
thanks  &  departed  very  well  satisfied. 

19th  —  I  received  a  letter  by  express  from  Col°  Reed 
acquainting  me  of  Capt  Sterlings  setting  out  from  Fort 
Pitt,  with  100  men  of  the  42 d  Reg4  to  take  possession  of 
Fort  Chartres  in  the  Ilinois  Country 

20th  —  I  sent  of[f]  Huron  Andrew  Express  to  Cap* 
Sterling131  at  the  Ilinois,  &  with  messages  to  the  several 

131  Sir  Thomas  Stirling,  Bart.,  obtained  his  company  in  July,  1757,  in  the 
426!,  or  Royal  Highland,  regiment,  which  accompanied  Abercromby  in  1758, 
and  Amherst  in  1759  in  their  respective  expeditions  on  Lakes  George  and 
Champlain;  was  afterwards  detailed  to  assist  at  the  siege  of  Niagara,  and 
accompanied  Amherst  from  Oswego  to  Montreal  in  1760.  Knox.  Captain 
Stirling  was  appointed  a  Major  in  1770,  and  Lieutenant-colonel  of  the  4ad  in 
September,  1771.  He  was  in  command  of  his  regiment  in  the  engagement  on 
Staten  Island,  and  in  the  battle  of  Brooklyn  Heights,  in  1776;  was  afterwards 
at  the  storming  of  Fort  Washington  and  accompanied  the  expedition  against 
Philadelphia.  He  became  Colonel  in  the  army  in  1779,  and  was  Brigadier, 
under  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  in  the  expedition  against  Charleston,  S.  C.,  in  1780. 
Beatson.  He  succeeded  Lieutenant-general  Frazer  as  Colonel  of  the  7ist  High- 
landers, in  February,  1782,  and  in  November  following,  became  Major-general. 
He  went  on  the  retired  list  in  1783,  when  his  regiment  was  disbanded.  In  1796 
he  was  appointed  Lieutenant-general;  was  created  a  Baronet  some  time  after, 
and  became  a  General  in  the  army  on  the  first  of  January,  1801.  He  died  in 
1808.  Army  Lists. —  E.  B.  O'CALLAGHAN. 


164  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

Nations  in  that  Country  &  those  on  the  Ouabache,  to 
acquaint  them  of  Cap*  Starling's  departure  from  Fort 
Pitt  for  the  Ilinois  Country. 

25th  — The  Chiefs  of  the  S*  Joseph  Indians  arrived 
and  addressed  themselves  to  Col°  Campbell  &  me  as 
follows, 

FATHERS:  We  are  come  here  to  see  you,  altho'  we 
are  not  acquainted  with  you,  we  had  a  Father  formerly, 
with  whom  we  were  very  well  acquainted,  &  never  dif- 
fered with  him,  you  have  conquered  him  some  time  ago,  & 
when  you  came  here  first  notwithstanding  your  hands 
were  all  bloody,  you  took  hold  of  us  by  the  hands,  & 
used  us  well,  &  we  thought  we  should  be  happy  with  our 
Fathers,  but  soon  an  unlucky  difference  happened,  which 
threw  us  all  in  confusion,  where  this  arose  we  don't 
know  but  we  assure  you,  we  were  the  last  that  entered 
into  this  Quarrel,  the  Inds  from  this  place  solicited  us 
often  to  join  them,  but  we  would  not  listen  to  them,  at 
last  they  got  the  better  of  our  foolish  young  Warriors, 
but  we  never  agreed  to  it,  we  knew  it  would  answer  no 
end,  &  often  told  our  Warriors  they  were  fools,  if  they 
succeeded  in  killing  the  few  English  in  this  Country,  they 
could  not  kill  them  all  because  we  knew  you  to  be  a  great 
People. 

Fathers:  you  have  after  all  that  has  happened,  re- 
ceived all  the  several  Tribes  in  this  Country  for  your 
Children,  we  from  St.  Joseph's  seem  to  be  the  last  of 
your  Children  that  come  to  you,  we  are  no  more  than 
Wild  Creatures  to  you  Fathers  in  understanding  therefore 
we  request  you'l  forgive  the  past  follies  of  our  young 
people  &  receive  us  for  your  Children  since  you  have 
thrown  down  our  former  Father  on  his  back,  we  have  been 
wandering  in  the  dark  like  blind  people,  now  you  have  dis- 


1765]  Grogharis  Journals  165 

persed  all  this  darkness  which  hung  over  the  heads  of  the 
several  Tribes,  &  have  accepted  them  for  your  Children, 
we  hope  you  will  let  us  partake  with  them  of  the  light, 
that  our  Women  &  Children  may  enjoy  Peace,  &  we 
beg  you'l  forget  all  that  is  past,  by  this  belt  we  remove  all 
evil  thoughts  from  your  hearts. —  A  Belt. 

Fathers,  When  we  formerly  came  to  visit  our  late 
Fathers  the  French  they  always  sent  us  home  joyfull,  & 
we  hope  you  will  have  pity  on  our  Women  &  Young  Men 
who  are  in  great  Want  of  necessarys,  &  not  let  us  return 
home  to  our  Villages  ashamed. 

Col°  Campbell  &  I  made  them  the  following  answer. 

CHILDREN:  I  have  heard  with  attention  what  you 
have  said,  &  am  glad  to  hear  that  you  have  delivered  up 
the  Prisoners  at  Michillimakinac,  agreeable  to  my  desire, 
as  the  other  Prisoner  who  I  always  thought  belonged  to 
your  Nation  does  not,  but  the  man  who  has  him  resides 
now  in  your  Country,  I  must  desire  you'l  do  every  thing 
in  your  Power  to  get  him  brought  to  me,  nothing  will  give 
me  greater  pleasure  than  to  promote  the  good  Works  of 
Peace,  &  make  my  Children  the  Indians  happy  as  long 
as  their  own  Conduct  shall  deserve  it.  I  did  not  know 
what  to  think  of  your  conduct  for  some  time  past,  but  to 
convince  you  of  my  sincere  desire  to  promote  Peace,  I 
receive  you  as  Children  as  I  have  done  the  other  Nations,  & 
hope  your  future  Conduct  may  be  such,  as  will  convince 
me  of  your  sincerity. —  A  Belt. 

Children:  Sometimes  bad  people  take  the  liberty  of 
stragling  into  your  Country,  I  desire  if  you  meet  any  such 
people  to  bring  them  immediately  here,  likewise  I  desire 
that  none  of  your  Young  Men  may  steal  any  Horses  cut 
of  this  settlement  as  they  have  done  formerly,  we  shall 
see  always  strict  justice  done  to  you,  &  expect  the  same 


1 66  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

from  you,  on  that  your  own  happiness  depends,  &  as 
long  as  you  continue  to  merit  our  friendship  by  good 
actions  in  promoting  Peace  &  Tranquility  between  your 
Young  People  &  His  Majesties  Subjects,  you  may  expect 
to  be  received  here  with  open  arms,  &  to  convince  you 
further  of  my  sincerity,  I  give  you  some  cloaths,  powder, 
lead,  verniillion  &  2  cags  of  rum  for  your  young  People, 
that  you  may  return  home  without  shame  as  you  desired. 

Children,  I  take  this  oppertunity  to  tell  you  that  your 
Fathers  the  English  are  gone  down  the  Ohio  from  Fort 
Pitt  to  take  possession  the  Ilinois,  &  desire  you  may 
acquaint  all  your  people  of  it  on  your  return  home,  &  like- 
wise desire  you  will  stop  your  Ears  against  the  Whistling 
of  bad  birds,-  &  mind  nothing  else  but  your  Hunting  to 
support  your',  Familys,  that  your  Women  &  Children 
may  enjoy  the  Blessing  of  Peace. —  A  Belt. 

September  26th.132 —  Set  out  from  Detroit  for  Niagara; 
passed  Lake  Erie  along  the  north  shore  in  a  birch  canoe, 
and  arrived  the  8th  of  October  at  Niagara.  The  naviga- 
tion of  the  lake  is  dangerous  for  batteaux  or  canoes,  by 
reason  the  lake  is  very  shallow  for  a  considerable  dis- 
tance from  the  shore.  The  bank,  for  several  miles,  high 
and  steep,  and  affords  a  harbor  for  a  single  batteau.  The 
lands  in  general,  between  Detroit  and  Niagara,  are  high, 
and  the  soil  good,  with  several  fine  rivers  falling  into  the 
lake.  The  distance  from  Detroit  to  Niagara  is  com- 
puted three  hundred  miles. 

132  The  entry  for  September  26,  and  the  list  of  tribes  following,  are  taken 
from  the  Featherstonhaugh-Butler  edition  of  the  journal. —  ED. 


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CROGHAN  TO  SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON  133 

SIR:  In  the  scituation  I  was  in  at  Ouiatonon,  with 
great  numbers  of  Indians  about  me,  &  no  Necessaries 
such  as  Paper  &  Ink,  I  had  it  not  in  my  power  to  take 
down  all  the  speeches  made  by  the  Indian  Nations,  nor 
what  I  said  to  them,  in  so  particular  a  manner  as  I  could 
wish,  but  hope  the  heads  of  it  as  I  have  taken  down  will 
meet  with  your  approbation. 

In  the  Course  of  this  Tour  through  the  Indn  Countrys 
I  made  it  my  study  to  converse  in  private  with  Pondiac,  & 
several  of  the  Chiefs  of  the  different  Nations,  as  often  as 
oppertunity  served,  in  order  to  find  out  the  sentiments 
they  have  of  the  French  &  English,  Pondiac  is  a  shrewd 
sensible  Indian  of  few  words,  &  commands  more  respect 
amongst  those  Nations,  than  any  Indian  I  ever  saw  could 
do  amongst  his  own  Tribe.  He  and  all  his  principal  men 
of  those  Nations  seem  at  present  to  be  convinced  that  the 
French  had  a  view  of  interest  in  stirring  up  the  late  dif- 
ferance  between  his  Majesties  Subjects  &  them  &  call  it  a 
Bever  War,  for  neither  Pondiac  nor  any  of  the  Indians 
which  I  met  with,  ever  pretended  to  deny  but  the  French 
were  at  the  bottom  of  the  whole,  &  constantly  supplyed 
them  with  every  necessary  they  wanted,  as  far  as  in  their 
power,  every  where  through  that  Country  &  notwith- 
standing they  are  at  present  convinced,  that  it  was  for 
their  own  Interest,  yet  it  has  not  changed  the  Indians 
affections  to  them,  they  have  been  bred  up  together  like 
Children  in  that  Country,  &  the  French  have  always 

133  This  letter  is  reprinted  from  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  pp.  787, 
788.  It  was  evidently  written  after  Croghan's  return  from  the  West,  and 
accompanied  the  official  version  of  his  journal,  which  Johnson  sent  to  England 
November  16,  1765.  See  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vii,  p.  775. —  ED. 


1765]  Croghans  Journals  171 

adopted  the  Indians  customs  &  manners,  treated  them 
civily  &  supplyed  their  wants  generously,  by  which  means 
they  gained  the  hearts  of  the  Indians  &  commanded 
their  services,  &  enjoyed  the  benefit  of  a  very  large  Furr 
Trade,  as  they  well  knew  if  they  had  not  taken  this  meas- 
ure they  could  not  enjoy  any  of  those  Advantages.  The 
French  have  in  a  manner  taught  the  Indians  in  that 
Country  to  hate  the  English,  by  representing  them  in  the 
worst  light  they  could  on  all  occasion,  in  particular  they 
have  made  the  Indians  there  believe  lately,  that  the  Eng- 
lish would  take  their  Country  from  them  &  bring  the 
Cherokees  there  to  settle  &  to  enslave  them,  which  report 
they  easily  gave  credit  to,  as  the  Southern  Inds  had 
lately  commenced  war  against  them.  I  had  great  dif- 
ficulty in  removeing  this  suspicion  and  convincing  them  of 
the  falsity  of  this  report,  which  I  flatter  myself  I  have 
done  in  a  great  measure,  yet  it  will  require  some  time,  a 
very  even  Conduct  in  those  that  are  to  reside  in  their 
Country,  before  we  can  expect  to  rival  the  French  in  their 
affection,  all  Indians  are  jealous  &  from  their  high 
notion  of  liberty  hate  power,  those  Nations  are  jealous 
and  prejudiced  against  us,  so  that  the  greatest  care  will 
be  necessary  to  convince  them  of  our  honest  Intention  by 
our  Actions.  The  French  sold  them  goods  much  dearer 
than  the  English  Traders  do  at  present,  in  that  point  we 
have  the  advantage  of  the  French,  but  they  made  that 
up  in  large  presents  to  them  for  their  services,  which  they 
wanted  to  support  their  Interest  in  the  Country,  &  tho' 
we  want  none  of  their  services,  yet  they  will  expect  fa- 
vours, &  if  refused  look  on  it  in  a  bad  light,  &  very  likely 
think  it  done  to  distress  them  for  some  particular  Advan- 
tages we  want  to  gain  over  them,  they  are  by  no  means 
so  sensible  a  People  as  the  Six  Nations  or  other  Tribes 


172  Early  Western  Travels  [Vol.  i 

this  way,  &  the  French  have  learned  them  for  their  own 
advantage  a  bad  custom,  for  by  all  I  could  learn,  they 
seldom  made  them  any  general  presents,  but  as  it  were  fed 
them  with  Necessaries  just  as  they  wanted  them  Tribe 
by  Tribe,  &  never  sent  them  away  empty,  which  will 
make  it  difficult  &  troublesome  to  the  Gentlemen  that 
are  to  command  in  their  Country  for  some  time,  to  please 
them  &  preserve  Peace,  as  they  are  a  rash  inconsiderate 
People  and  don't  look  on  themselves  under  any  obliga- 
tions to  us,  but  rather  think  we  are  obliged  to  them  for 
letting  us  reside  in  their  Country.  As  far  as  I  can  judge 
of  their  Sentiments  by  the  several  Conversations  I  have  had 
with  them,  they  will  expect  some  satisfaction  made  them 
by  Us,  for  any  Posts  that  should  be  established  in  their 
Country  for  Trade.  But  you  will  be  informed  better  by 
themselves  next  Spring,  as  Pondiac  &  some  Chiefs  of 
every  Nation  in  that  Country  intend  to  pay  you  a  visit. 
The  several  Nations  on  the  Ouiabache,  &  towards  the 
Ilinois,  St.  Josephs,  Chicago,  Labaye,  Sagina  &  other 
places  have  applyed  for  Traders  to  be  sent  to  their  set- 
tlements, but  as  it  is  not  in  the  power  of  any  Officer  to 
permit  Traders  to  go  from  Detroit  or  Michillimackinac, 
either  English  or  French,  I  am  of  opinion  the  Inds  will 
be  supplyed  this  year  chiefly  from  the  Ilinois,  which  is 
all  French  property  &  if  Trading  Posts  are  not  estab- 
lished at  proper  Places  in  that  Country  soon  the  French 
will  carry  the  best  part  of  the  Trade  over  the  Missisipi 
which  they  are  determined  to  do  if  they  can,  for  I  have 
been  well  informed  that  the  French  are  preparing  to 
build  a  strong  trading  Fort  on  the  other  side  Missisipi, 
about  <5o  miles  above  Fort  Char  Ins,134  and  have  this 

134  Fort  Chartres  was  originally  built  as  a  stockade  post  in  1720;  but  in  1756 
was  rebuilt  in  stone,  and  became  the  most  important  French  fortification  in  the 


1765]  Crogharfs  "Journals  173 

Summer  in  a  private  manner  transported  26  pieces  of 
small  canon  up  the  River  for  that  purpose. 

G.  CROGHAN. 
November,  1765. 

West.  It  was  an  irregular  quadrangle,  with  houses,  magazines,  barracks,  etc., 
defended  with  cannon. —  See  Pittman,  Settlements  on  the  Mississippi  (London, 
1770),  pp.  45,  46.  After  its  surrender  by  the  French,  the  English  garrisoned  the 
stronghold  until  1772,  when  the  river's  erosion  made  it  untenable.  For  the 
present  state  of  the  ruins,  see  Mason,  Chapters  from  Illinois  History,  pp.  241-249. 
The  French  trading  post  sixty  miles  above  Fort  Chartres,  on  the  western 
bank  of  the  river,  was  the  beginning  of  the  present  city  of  St.  Louis,  which  was 
founded  in  April,  1764,  by  Pierre  Laclede.  Upon  the  surrender  of  the  Illinois 
to  the  English,  St.  Ange,  with  the  garrison  and  many  French  families,  removed 
to  this  new  post,  in  the  expectation  of  living  under  French  authority.  To  their 
chagrin  the  place  was  surrendered  to  the  Spanish  the  following  year. —  ED. 


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